Westward Expansion and World Heritage Frauds, Chaco Canyon and Mesa Verde. (2023)

The 4 corners region of the Southwest United States is home to some of the most culturally important structures on Earth. This is a World Heritage area of significant importance to the human species as a whole. At least, thats what the United Nations says. Too bad it’s fake. How do I know without even looking? Because the UN endorses it silly, all they do is lie. If the UN is talking, they are lying, its that easy. That takes all the fun out of it though, let me break it down for the skeptics

Someone turned me on to this place just the other day. I’ve seen stock footage of the cliff dwellings but besides that I dont know anything about them (except they are fake) I can already tell what it was designed to do. Instill a sense of awe. I have covered much of this information already. I was afraid this wasn’t gonna be a long post but there is an added element to the usual ‘conservation and preservation’ front I’d like to add.

The World Heritage designation is intriguing, its important bc not only will it cover any lesser Native American Indian sites in America but it also draws attn to other World Heritage sites everywhere on Earth that all follow the same basic outline. I already covered one in the Czech Republic but this one is closer to home for most of us.

That’s my first problem with it right there. It just is too over the top in some places, like the cliff dwellings., they just straight up look fake. As if some over-ambitious college kid on mushrooms tried to think of the most piss-your-pants awesome building he could think of and this is what he came up with. The scale is off too, look how small this thing is, its a complex of jail cells, I’ve been in jail cells bigger than some of these buildings. And if they’re so important to the whole entire race then how come nobody even knows their name? or where they came from or where they went? I know why, come on, lets go, just try and keep up ok bc I got shit to do.

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Battle of Canyon de Chelly

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Studio portrait of Navajo Leader Manuelito, after the Navajo Wars. All the Indian portraits are studio sittings bc they are costumes. This one had the words ‘Saved Navajo Bills life once’ written on the back. Idk who Navajo Bill is but theres a lead for interested parties.

In 1864 this battle ended the Navajo Wars, Colonel Chris Carson used the Scorched Earth policy to round up the last pockets of resistance of Navajo warriors. The Scorched Earth is a way to explain the absence of all evidence of the existence of people anywhere. There was nothing here to begin with so Scorched Earth fits nicely.

The multiple ‘C’s’ appear alot; Canyon de Chelly; Col. Chris Carson; Chaco Canyon. Any doubles are a signal. letters have a number value. Navajo Nation is 14/14. 144 is important too, like 144,000 people in Revelations. A lot is context. If there is only one number in a group that looks jenky it could be organic but when they are repeated everywhere it is part of a signal.

His-story says this battle marks the time when the Navajo people and all their works are removed from the area.

  • If he is such a bad ass killer why is the Army just letting him run around taking selfies. He’s be locked up or killed I’d think. Same with Geronimo
  • The Vistor Center is 3 miles off Rt 161 (666

4 years later in 1868 they were returned to the area. This marks the first time they are introduced to the region ever. There never was a first time. The collective memory still knows it. This at least gives us a starting point; in 1868 the ruins were here.

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In theory you could pull it off with just a small population of living people right, I mean if you got a big enough propaganda machine you could rule by threat. Just like ‘Rona. There were no Indian wars bc there were no Indians. No disrespect to anyone, I dont know where my people come from either. Thats why all the pics of Indians you see are studio shots. There were small groups that were used…Oh that explains why there was always an Indian marching band in parades. The small groups had to be used strategically where they were always seen and noticed the most. That is why they were such a staple of all the exhibitions and fairs. The whole wild west was written by some crazy French Aristocrats and inserted by a few showmen like PT Barnum and Buffalo Bill. There are no Ti-pi villages that stretch for miles, there are no buffalo herds that go out to the horizon. Scorched Earth, eh. They use that one in Russia too when they talk about Napoleon bc he was in the Fictional Founding Father club. Hes an easy one for those of you that might be new. Napoleon is an allegory for the Reset. In America we use him to explain the Louisiana Purchase land grab, which we hold up with events like the 1904 Louisiana Purchase Expo in St Louis. It all ties back together at the World Fairs, we’ll get there in a sec.

How the Scorched Earth policy fakes history

Manuelito escaped ino other lands, which provide an opening for scriptwriters to continue the scorched earth campaign into other sites to explain the non-existence of those tribes as well.

  • “This is where the Navajo Nation lived, and there is where the Hopi lived.”- National Park Service
  • “Oh, where are all their buildings, land management, cemeteries…anything?”-Casual observer
  • “Uhh, Scorched Earth… from the war”- NPS
  • “Oh, what about them over there?” -observer
  • “Uh, we scorched them too, part of the war spilled over and we removed any sign of them over there as well. In fact, we removed everything from everywhere. Just trust us.”
  • ”Oh. But what…”
  • “I said just trust us.”

See how easy that works

Or, as the National Park Service so eloquently gives us another example of how Indians are used to explain the discovery of a significant place. This time it’s Yosemite Park, we’ll return here later and you’ll see why this is noteworthy.

“The valley was discovered in 1851, when a detachment of mounted volunteers under Capt. John Boling, in an effort to put an end to the depredations of the Indians that infested the region, pursued them to their mountain stronghold.”

NPS on Yosemite Park

After that, the Slash and Burn/Scorched Earth policy is used to dismiss any questions about the lack of any evidence in the area.

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This is a memorial for Bosque Redondo, an experimental internment camp for displaced Indians, the first Rez. This treaty was the binding-contract that forced the children into the US school system. I just see another pyramid with separated capstone.

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One more thing about the Navajo Wars. I was reading about someone seemingly unconnected the other day in my Antarctica paper named Greely. Greely was involved in a fake expedition and subsequent media sensationalized rescue at the North Pole. Afterwards, as part of his promotion, he was appointed as head of the Signaling Corps. Among his responsibilities was management of the Indian Wars, specifically the Ute and Navajo, which includes this here. The Signaling Corps is also the overseer of the Corps of Engineers. Greely wasn’t in charge of an actual military campaign with battles, he was in charge of making it look like he was. Just like he tricked the World with his North Pole illusion, now he was on a much larger scale.

There is a thick Polar exploration vein that runs through this thread, before i tell you that story I have to tell you this story

Lets break here for a few paragraphs bc this is an important indirect/secondary character. Thats how the whole thing runs is on the side-piece connections. This Greely guy is nobody special, I never even heard of him before the other day. Its not him that came up, it is his work. He was the commander here that oversaw the Corps of Engineers in the same time frame and the same area and was responsible for managing communication between different branches of the Armed Forces and I got him red handed.

With the Signal Corps, which also included theWeather Bureau, Greely was recognized as an expert weather forecaster.His efforts helped establish thefloodplainsof theMississippi,Missouri, andOhioRivers, which facilitatedCorps of Engineersflood control projects.In addition, he oversaw planning, construction, and maintenance of severaltelegraphlines, including lines in remote areas ofIndian Territory,Texas,Dakota Territory, andMontana Territory.

Ministry of Truth

Telegraph maintenance in remote Indian Territory. lol, heck he could’ve stay stranded on the ice.

Greely was from one of the New England Families. Born in Newbury N.H., 3/27/1844. Attended Brown high school and enlisted in 1861 for the Union Army. That means he was only 16 or 17 when he joined. By the end of the war he had been promoted to brevet Major for his war time accomplishments.

On 18 March 1863, he was commissioned as asecond lieutenantin the 81st United States Colored Infantry.He was promoted tofirst lieutenanton 26 April 1864 and tocaptainon 4 April 1865.He was mustered out of theVolunteer Armyon 22 March 1867. The date 3/18 is 6+6+6. April 26 is a big sacrifice day, the Feast of Moloch to the fake Ancients, Passover to the fake Jews. Mary Phagan from the Leo Frank case was found on this day is how I know. March 22 3/22 is the skull and bones number, it comes up again as the date he received his Medal of Honor by Special Act of Congress, 1935. The dates in his war record are an early tell.

People in today’s P.C. clime dont realize what the Colored Troop Infantry was all about.Nobody paid much attn to what the Colored troops were doing so they were the ones that did alot of the Special Ops projects. They were the ones that first ‘discovered’ artifacts at the Jamestown Settlement. The troop wasn’t just for Black people, the Indians of the fake Cherokee nation and the Spanish and Puerto Ricans… Anybody that was non-White was classified as Colored, it doesn’t mean ‘Black’. It’s a thing, Anyone associated with the Colored Troops, especially an officer you want to keep an eye on.

During his Civil War service, Greely took part in several battles, including Antietum. I have covered some of this battle as its where fake Lincoln and fake Pinkerton got together when the Emancipation Proclamation was released. If Greely was tied to this alone he is automatically outted, his whole record is like this.

In 1871 he was detailed in the Signal Corps, the name should be self-explanatory, the Signal Corps was the premiere intelligence agency for coordinating between branches of the Armed Forces. Over its history, it had the initial responsibility for portfolios and new technologies that were eventually transferred to other U.S. government entities. New war technologies, this is like the Proto-DARPA.

Signal Corps also included theWeather Bureau until the Dept of Agr took over. Greely was recognized as an expert weather forecaster.His efforts helped establish thefloodplains which facilitatedCorps of Engineersand their ‘flood control’ projects.In addition, he oversaw planning, construction, and maintenance of severaltelegraphlines, including lines in remote areas ofIndian Territory and Western territories. This guy is building up an impressive resume for like a James Bond super-villain.

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TheLady Franklin Bay Expedition at the North Pole which was the sensational rescue wasn’t until 1881, its publicly stated purpose was to establish one of a chain of meteorological-observation stations as part of the FirstInternational Polar Year. 25 men started out 18 died. The early freeze set in and the expedition got stranded at the North Pole. They were stuck out there for 3 years. There were suspicions of cannibalism but nothing was confirmed. Speculation is that the body was cut up for fishing bait. The survivor-cannibalism was definitely used in the media for collective-trauma; the whaleship Essex and Donner Party were two right off the top. These were high-class officers and prestigious bloodlines that didn’t want the shade of outright cannibalism, this was the closest thing the scriptwriters could come up with. There was no body. He was not stuck on the ice for 3 years. He could’ve been out on a mission somewhere and that was his cover story maybe.

The expedition was under the auspices of the Signal Corps at a time when the Corps’ Chief Disbursements officer,Henry W. Howgate, was arrested forembezzlement. (who embezzled over $133,000 from the U.S. Government. He escaped custody while on trial and evaded theSecret ServiceandPinkerton Detective Agencyfor 13years, gtfoh, this has connected to my Pinkerton files in a couple places. Check out how twisted these guys were. [My Link] Many of the crew were part of Howgates own arctic exploration expedition.

So we’re not off to a good start. The ship finally arrived at their destination Aug 11, this is when the real trouble begins. Supply ships missed the first year and everything was downhill after that till they eating each other, you can read the details first-hand in the account above.

Who knows what they were really doing during this 3 year period they were supposedly trapped on the ice. When it was all done Greely got his comeuppance, in 1886 he was appointed by Prez Cleveland as Chief Signal Officer in the US Army. As Signal Chief he was responsible for the installation and maintenance of telegraph systems in the Banana Republic nations that America had just staged proxy wars to explain their control of, such as the Spanish-American and Philippine Wars, Puerto Rico, Cuba and Alaska. Yeah, like I said, telegraph maintenance.

There was alot of work going on in these parts of the World. Islands were always used to isolate populations, like little pertri dishes. There were extensive breeding programs set up to create all the different races of the world, islands would’ve served as dividers. Puerto Rico and Hawaii were private islands owned by the Industrial Complex Complex. The Philippines was a big one too. The Panama Canal was about to be dug but first the infrastructure mist be install. The canal is an ancient artifact, they didnt build it. Maybe they had to make sure repairs or widened it. This will come back into play later.

Greely led to the Army’s integration of wireless telegraphy, airplanes, motorized automobiles and trucks, and other modern equipment. He represented the United States at the 1903 International Telegraph Congress inLondonand the 1903International Wireless Telegraph CongressinBerlin.Greely worked on some of the first international telecommunication treaties.

In 1890, Greely was a founding member of the District of Columbia Society of theSons of the American Revolution. He was also member of the Loyal Legion and American Philosophical Society, Cosmos Club. The Cosmos Club was founded by John Wesley Powell, first director of the USGS.

In March 1935 he received of Medal of Honor and was buried in Arlington National Cemetery

In 1906 he was assigned to command relief efforts following theSan Francisco earthquake.

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  • Horace Greeley, editor of the NY Tribune

Timmy O’Sullivan

Before we really get going its important to understand where these pictures are coming from. Not the geographical location but the photographer. These are war-time military operations, it’s not like some tourist with a hobby. In America there were a handful of photo pioneers that have a direct line back to Samuel Morse, credited with inventing the telegraph who was the first daguerreotype artist in America, recieving instruction directly from Daguerro himself.

First it was the Civil War. The more Sullivan images I look at the more it seems this was the Americanized version of Crimea’s wag-the-dog media war, meaning there is only the appearance of war; forts and alot of people standing around drinking and smoking, just general camp images.

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  • See painter for the War Dept, Mr Wyant of NY, ’73 Wheeler Expedition. Painter Wyant, elected to National Academy of Design 1869 (also founded by Morse)

O’Sullivan, Timothy H., 1840-1882, photographer. War Dept., Corps of Engineers. The sources of old Western frontier images all come from the War Dept bc they are part of a Psyche war. All the Indian portraits were originally paintings before the camera was introduced. All handled by the War Dept and all done by family agents, like Bird and McKenna. The Sullivan’s are one of the premiere spook families and the Army Corp of Engineers are one of the groups that manipulate the landscape to fit the narrative. One example I have covered extensively is the modification of an existing star fort to appear the way the first settlement of Jamestown would look according to the Normie historians.

This area was surveyed one time in 1844 by the first passing military leader who deemed the place off limits due to hostile Indians and terrain. Nope. The place was deemed too hostile only to keep outsiders away. They used the same trick back East to keep recent immigrants confined to controlled population centers. The invisible potential threat, the terrorists or viruses of the day.

The first survey teams were scouting for natural rock formations to serve as destinations of the coming tourism industry and as sacred cultural centers for fictional tribes. This concept was worldwide, not limited to the U.S.

There are a few that were worthy to be put on the World stage. World Heritage sites. Anything the UN promotes is fake, I love busting those guys out, lets do this.

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Lets go back to Sullivan for a bit. Born Ireland to Jerimiah and Ann D. He was also a Civil War photographer as well as one of the first photographers to travel out west. I guess as an agent of the War Dept his job was to provide visual evidence of all the fake and proxy battles of his day. This iconic image is titled the Harvest of Death. The thing that draws my attn isn’t the few bodies laying on the ground. The are concentrated in a tight area but past that there is nothing. no trash, no bodies. Thats bc why stage the part that is out of frame? The dirt itself is undisturbed, this is Gettysburg, one of the most well-known battles of the War, the earth should be torn up from battle but even the grass looks undisturbed, except for some trash that is sprinkled around the few bodies. Zoom in on the face, Im not convinced that isn’t some sort of prosthetic on the lips. I get the concept he was trying to pull off, bodies swollen and stiff but this is not natural, not that im an expert in natural decomposition of corpses but I am an expert in general fuckery and thats all this is.

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In the name of general fuckery the Harvest of Death is awfully similar to the image titled Valley of Death from the Crimean War which has about 20 cannonballs strewn out across the road. This image was taken seriously for a little while but ultimately was admitted to be faked. Spoiler Alert: So is this one

The part that does get my attn is the fine print at the bottom. Always read the fine print.

Negative by T. Sullivan, Entered by Act of Congress in 1863 by A. Gardner. Positive by A. Gardner, 511 7th St, Washington

This is the part I see as important bc Alex Gardner was one of Lincolns photographers, he also photographed the hanging of the assassins. The thing is, Lincoln didn’t exist either and if anyone really was hanged that day it was not the same people under those hoods that history says. I also caught Gardner using prosthetics on his Lincoln models to disguise their ears and give high sunken cheek bones, thus validating my hypothesis about the dead guy in the front of the Death Harvest photo. The address is one of the few that I dont see an obvious number trick. I’m sure it is but I highlighted it bc it is the same address from the Lincoln portraits, meaning it was a literal brick-and-mortar photoshop. It was his laboratory where he created the false-narrative visuals. This connection right here invalidates every single image this guy ever took.

Gardener was from Scotland, son of affluent parents, editor of local rag Glasgow Sentinel and an avid follower of Robert Owens, the Chartist labor proto-union (ties him to the Industrial Revolution. Alex emigrated to American to start one of Owens Co-ops in Iowa on the Mississippi River in 1856. This would put him in contact with the Combine Reaper program, also based in Scotland and tried in Iowa at Owenite communities

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Robert Brady is a Fake Ass Bitch

Gardner was a student of Mathew Brady, labeled ‘the father of photojournalism’, Brady was also a Civil War photo-shopper and Lincoln photographer. Brady published a photo album in 1850 of all the fake founding fathers. daguerreotype. Brady, Gardner, O’Sullivan and Bell would comprise the earliest field photography in America. Brady got his start right from Samuel Morse and there is a direct line from Daguerre all the way to the Wheeler Expedition.

Sammy Morse says he learned how to build a camera from a mass-produced pamphlet printed by Frenchman Daguerre, that’s what all the very early photographers say. Morse passed the knowledge down either directly or by way of public demonstration to Matthew Brady. Twice in a row the scriptwriters are trying to make the connection. This is bc the development of the camera and photography was happening all over the world simultaneously, anytime that happens it is bc the invention is of great importance to the Post-Reset overlords. The narrative has to casually dismiss this and explain how its emergence was so widespread so rapidly and this is the best they can come up with.

(Video) Life as Migration: The Mesa Verde Pueblo People

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Supposedly Brady was robbed of glory at the Philly Centennial by the next gen photographers, he had already won awards at many other competitions.

Some debate over whether Brady was illiterate due to the lack of letters from him is making me question if he existed in the flesh or only on paper. All there was is a single signature on his bankruptcy file. A museum curator produced one letter in the 1950’s which is spooky enough, then a box of old plates turns up in a barn upstate NY.

The new letter and one written to Sammy Morse in 1855 are the only two letters from him. Not only that but Pinkerton is said to have given Brady. Plus he has modern professional biographers/cover artists. Thats the 3 strike rule I use. Looking back on the Brady material I now think its more plausible he was not a living person. This would explain his absence from the photographic record, his refusal of Big Gov offers, the property seizure, the foreclosure

  • Brady was first contributor for Harpers Weekly and Leslie’s Illustrated.
  • His first shop was on Fulton Street. Shout out to Robert Fulton, credited for the steam-ship (he didn’t do it). Gallery was located above Thompson’s Saloon, Thompson is another Reset family
  • There is no mention of how Brady gave Gardner the job, Gardner was already accomplished at the time. This would be fitting if Brady didn’t exist and Gardner was chosen for his portfolio, Brady is just an allegory for the Reset. Its agents know Brady is a fictional character so when they see his name attached to something they know it is for the Great Work and just go along with it.
  • He won the first medal at the Crystal Palace World Fair in 1851, he himself was the exhibit, he got the medal as an art project.
  • Plus, I mean his two famous students are a Sullivan and a Bell, you dont get any spookier than that, as far as generational agent families go these are two of the top. Brady was a go-between Morse and Sullivan/Bell. Bell being from Scotland and involved with the same projects his relatives probably worked with the Morse family in the Old Country.
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That aint nothing though, my fav part is how a lawsuit was opened in an attempt to get the item returned to a guy that says his ex-wife stole it. The infamous mock-court-case-to-add-credibilty techique.

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Another give-away that some kind of fuckery is afoot is any mention of ghosts or hauntings or paranormal activity. I mean theyre call ed spooks for crying out loud. This is the over-the-top kind of mocking humor these guys have. Ghost pictures of Lincoln and Mary Todd. Might as well throw PT Barnum into it. Since we got Barnum and ghost Lincoln, lets summons some ghost Indians. lol, get it? bc Barnum was one of the main ones perpetuating the lie, but nobody knows that but you and me… Or maybe his ancestors just did the Ghost Dance. Sorry I couldnt help myself.

Civil War Shenanigans

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What Sullivan and Gardner did was travel around and find images that support the war narrative. For example, the railroad is an ancient artifact but it needed a lot of repairs to get it up and running again. These photographers would find a section of busted up track and give it the false title that the Rebels did it. This was done with all the infrastructural mustneeds, like bridges too.

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  • 1. Zouaves are Garibaldi Guard, a fictional warlord who is like the Latin Napoleon. Troops also were at Harpers Ferry
  • 2 , 3. are just random picked images for a comparison to the Crimean War scam. There, a bunch of spoiled rich kids just got together and hung in a field taking selfies and drinking, blowing up already-ruined targets, then posting the pics in their own media outlets and proclaim themselves war heroes
  • image 4 is so staged Im gonna pee myself. Brady is the guy in the back with the beaver hat, its not really Brady of course but the beaver hat is a signal, anyone that is wearing one is a representative.
  • Image 6. Thats one thing that distinguishes this war from Crimea, at least they tried to fake some bodies. I dont even remember which battle he came out of. One of the big ones. It doesn’t matter anyway bc they are like this in all of them. Fish lips and puffy face. It fits the description of what most people would think a body would look like if it was out in the sun for a week. Before tv people could only make mental images from written description, thats why OSullivans bodys all look like they do.
    • Prosethics was popular too in the fakster game, the same artist was using feature enhancers on Abe Lincoln look-a-likes.
  • 7. Execution of William Johnson, June 20, 1864, Att rape- Johnson was accused of attacking a white lady at the courthouse after admitting to deserting another unit. The Union troops sent a message after they beat the Confederate capitol of Richmond that power was transferred by name alone. This was to serve as a warning to deserters and slave escapes that were rising in the area. I have covered many fake public executions but I think this one is real. O Sullivan was brought in just to document the hanging. As usual the narrative says we just got lucky to have got such powerful archival images for the Library of Congress, that means they brought him in just for the show. Know how else I know? Hes even got an Executed Today webpage, (they only promote themselves.)
  • 8.) 50th NY Engineers, feelin kinda cute
  • 9. ‘Bombproof’ means ‘underground’, look at the chimneys coming up from the ground.
  • Thats Custer, from the fake Massacre. This context gives a new level of credibility to that chapter, Ill have to add this into my Geronimo file
  • 11. ‘Cockfighting at the Generals Headquarters’ look at the green Pine boughs draped across the thing, they just threw that thing together for the shot, maybe the cockfighting was an organic happening from all of Sullivans companions, they had to do something?
  • 12. titled “Confederate Prisoners”, sure they are, I can tell as soon as I saw that picture, I said to myself ,”Damn, those look just like Confederate Prisoners” gtfoh
  • 13. Entrance to Gettysburg Cemtery. The passing under the Arch is a luciferian ritual, the arch being the gateway to hell. Look for the passing under the arch in a parade setting. How many people buried here? mass grave? ground penetrating radar.

See Also:

  1. See Also: 1840 American Institute, first competitive photo competition
  2. Harvard observatory Whipple daguerreotype moon eclipse 1851
  3. carte de viste- postcard machine developed to bring all nwo sites home
  4. General Woll, mexican war, first war images, along with Fenton of the Crimean War
  5. Camel expedition, military survey Mojave Ft Defience, Eddie Fitzg Beale
  6. Lt. Lull, Selfridge Expedition
  7. Weldeck, Cincinnati photographer at Mammoth Cave, first under ground pic

Fortieth Parallel Survey

King Expedition 1867-69

Clarence King, 25 y/o rich boy,attended the prestigious Hartford High School followed by Yale’s Sheffield Science School. Family of China traders, opium survey of the 40th parallel, northern Cali, Wyoming, Nevada. photographed Comstock mine. first geo-photography, topographic engineer. anything with the word ‘engineer’ is a trigger. Clarence King is remembered for his relationship with a negro woman, Ada King (possible relation to MLK) and had the Diamond mine hoax.

There is some discussion about the spelling of his last name, not from my end, I already know, I’m just telling you. Gardner’s father dropped the ‘i’ in the spelling so G had it spelled like that until he was old enough to change it himself, then he went back to the old way. What is the significance of this? Nothing at all, it is the narrative make connections for you. I used to get so excited when I would find a connection like this bc it proves two factions really are connected. Eventually I figured out these connections are made on purpose; scriptwriters put forth effort to make sure everybody is connected to their people. Its a papertrail, its their strength as a parasite, they need each other so you damn right they all connect. Thats the ‘experts’ that spend a lifetime studying medieval genealogy, there was no medieval period, its all illegitimate claims based on forged birth records.

King was one of the orginal organizers of the USGS and first surveyor of Mt Shasta

Timmy Sullivan served as photographer

Another Gardner

Get this: In 1862/63 King shared a NYC apartment with a James Terry Gardner, also a Sheffie, the two and an acquaintance named William Hydetraveled by horseback to San Fran. Gardner joined the Corps of Engineers in Cali and is credited for the construction of several coastal forts off San Francisco. Golden Gate Park is a starfort so we know he didn’t build any of the stuff he says he did. Just like back in NYC, he claims responsible for installing the proper sewer systems throughout the city, the sewer systems are an engineering marvel. Thats the reoccurring theme, anything of engineering they can’t reproduce or has to be reverse-engineered they use him to do it.

1864 Gardiner joined the California Division of Mines and Geology, under the leadership ofJosiah Whitney to survey the Sierra Nevada Mountains. Next was Kings own survey in 67, followed by the Hayden Expedition in 72, which also involved King. These two were on every major western survey team in the 2nd half of the 19th century, I cannot believe for one second the two Gardner’s are not connected. Its the family biz.

September 1864, upon the designation by Prez Lincoln of theYosemite Valleyarea as a permanent public reserve, King and Gardiner were appointed to make a boundary survey around the rim of Yosemite Valley.

This is my favorite part- “Meanwhile, [Gardner] became involved in the mining industry, writing a report on coal and iron in Colorado (1875); serving as vice-president of the coal companies belonging to theErie Railroad; and becoming president of the Mexican Coke and Coal Company in 1899.”

Hello? Prez of the Erie RR in 1875 was Franklin Gowen, from the Molly Macguires and the Great Railroad Strike of ’77. Gardner was working for Gowen during the Great Strike…. Again this is just crazy, it does not affect our story one bit but shows how deeply embedded all these people and groups are with each other. Read my article about the Strike after this for context. These connections are what holds the whole shitshow together.

The two of them would become founding members of the Yale based Association for the Advancement of Truth in Art, oh, tell me more… Art has been the biggest purveyor of false narrative history since the Repopulation of Earth.

Diamond Hoax of 1872

In 1872 the team was involved in something called the Diamond Hoax of 72. Now, anytime the mainstreet media outlets call something a hoax you have to pay attn bc your about to get fucked. The media NEVER calls ‘hoax’ or unless it is meant to cover for something bigger. This was a promo piece for the diamond, and thus, the mining industry. Scammers ‘salted’ the ground with cheap 2nd rate stones used in industrial applications (diamond tipped drill bit material) and sold the plot to city investors including Tiffany and Co., Baron de Rothschild, and Gen McClellan, the actor-warlord. NY Tribune editor was part of it at the top, Greeley, as in the same fam as the fake polar exploration, this one ran for President even, as if the elections were real. Even Massachusetts Gov Ben Butler from the Tewksbury Almshouse Investigation was involved for those of you that read my Helen Keller paper.

This incident involved the Bank of Cali, top investors of Wall St, International Newspaper outlets, all the leading giants of finance, military, and media swindled by some Kentucky low-brows. Yeah I’m not buying it. Luckily the King Expedition just happened to be passing through the area at the same time and lent their scientific eye which immediately called out the hoax for what it was.

The King Expedition rushed to the scene after reading written accounts in the paper that seemed odd. The thing that made this so fishy was that for every diamond they picked up there were 10 rubies and emeralds and sapphires to go with it. They were all strewn about on the ground like chicken feed. Later when asked, one dupe replied

“For more than an hour, diamonds were being found in profusion, together with occasional rubies, emeralds and sapphires. Why a few pearls weren’t thrown in for good luck I have never yet been able to tell. Probably it was an oversight.”

At least he had a sense of humor. Another ‘victim’ said looking back it seemed suspicious that the con-man suggested where to look reminded him of a “mother goose suggesting to her child where to look for Easter Eggs.”

In the end the media excused everyone for falling for the con. One of the cons escaped and the other was sued by the gemstone industry, whoever that is. The case was settled out of court. I’m sure it was. Thats is how they cracked the case, using Science that the most powerful money men didn’t have. That is to say, all the money and military power in the World isn’t gonna help you to the incorruptible ‘Science’.

The Gold Rush of 1849 is the most popular mass migration event of the Westward expansion but that is our old friend, Compartmentalization, is back again, bitches. There was a constant barrage of mineral deposit propaganda, each segment having its own little Ministry of Truth page, unconnected from all the rest. The Diamond hoax was climax of months and months of buildup in the media about precious gems literally blanketing the ground by the handfuls. Even that came on top of decades more of expansion propaganda starting with the granddaddy repopulation event in 1849, “Thars gold in them hills” lol. Yep.

Here is the very first article that the Diamond Mountain appeared in, Tuscan’s Arizona Weekly on April 9, 1870. At first I couldn’t figure out why it featured on the April 1st edition but then I seen it. This is the 3rd edition of the 13th volume. now I gotcha. I also have covered how the layout of the articles on the page itself is meaningful. People,events, locations, etc are connected by their neighbors on the page, it is just part of the way they communicate. I bring this up to showcase the next article is about a McCormick, doesnt matter which one its the family, Stanly McCormick was the leading developer of the military industrial complex war machine called the Combine Reaper/Harvester that was about to be renamed the International Harveter. It is appropriate they are paired on the same page.

This article starts out by going over the discoveries leading up to the main event. In the weeks building up reports were published of new silver mines in NM. This was done on a larger scale as well, on a national level these early reports are made to drum up the anticipation.

The thing this offers to me is the idea that the ruins and cliff houses were originally meant to be part of the same exhibit. The modern day line is that these pueblo Indians didn’t really do anything except build these structures, then they disappeared for no reason. Thats ridicules. From this article here it reads like the ruins are being foreshadowed along with the gold mines, both of which are fake but thats the M.O. This is 1870, before the announcement of the World Fair project. At this point the cliff palace is either waiting patiently for its due or is in the construction phase now. The media is building up to anthropological discoveries further down the line.

The Transcontinental railroad was completed in 1869, or so they say, even back then the sign might say you can go but you cant get a ticket or its cancelled at the last minute. That’s the first time the public has access to the area so you would think some would be done here first to mark the initial discovery. Discoveries are made over the next 40 or 50 yrs from then on. Nobody said they all had to be done at the same time.

This article also is an example of how Indians were used to contain people by fear. Sure you can pay for a train ticket out west but who’s going to go if you’re gonna get tomahawked? They used this same tactic back East in an earlier generation. The threat of Cherokee tomahawks kept everyone from leaving the city. They had a gold rush of their own I believe, to spur expansion into Indian Territory after a period disbarment kept them out. Hmm, you don’t say.

Comstock Mine

The Comstock Mine is featured in Timmy Sullivan’s album. Its a pic of a guy with a pick and clean face and arms labeled ‘Miner’ Comstock Mine is a fake anyway, you can tell bc its the ones that are talked about in public education. I bet it had a World Fair exhibit, Im sure it did but you find out which one.

The purpose was the mining. The mine interests of Gowen can not be dismissed thats a shady motherfucker. This is only one year before the reign of terror and fake public executions in the coal fields of Eastern Penn and 2 years before the orchestrated nationwide strike that mirrored the Paris Commune, which is an allegory for the Great Reset. Im telling you there is some stuff here you dont fuck with.

The Comstock mine shots could have been taken anywhere. The Truth in Art inverted reality is they paint the false reality. The climax for the whole expedition was the gem fields. What I mean is the geographical pictures could have been taken at any time by anyone; all the identifiable pictures with the people could have been filmed likewise, meaning the two dont have to be at the same place at the same time. All those guys dont have to be tramping around the country to release the images. I dont think there was a King expedition, at least Im skeptical. It was a PR stunt. Its psychological warfare bro, there weren’t no Indians out there and there wasn’t no gold either. The part about the industrial diamonds being the sources for the fakes is just more propaganda, show all the potential uses for how good it is, just just a sparkly useless rock.

It is noted that King and crew were not affected by the fake gold rushes and diamond craze, the spectacle was outside the groups area, this could be a lead too, have a fake gold rush over here so nobody wants to come over there, where you are building a World Heritage site. What about that?

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California Geological Survey
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And Whats up with Lincoln sending them to Yosemite? Thats a brand new thread maybe we can go down one day. Anything with his name attached is fake. I would say the two protagonists here didn’t exist either but this is way into the repopulation and they come from long prestigious lines, they were given credit for stuff by Laws of Birth-Right rather than credit going to an imaginary friend. King and Gardner were recruited to survey Yosemite by Lincoln himself after the place was discovered being “infested with Indians” [NPS] There were no Indians, the place was not newly discovered and Lincoln was a fictional character. See how they all get grouped together, one lie propping up the ones around it. The only potential truth is King and Gardner; the California Geological Survey were like rock stars to the history books and even include a Hoffman.

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Charles Frederick Hoffman was a Harvard professor and content creator for Popular Science Monthly, an early spook front like Popular Mechanics. Hoffman wrote the cover-story bio’s for many other agents that the Normie his-story books teach kids in public schools. My favorite one is his narrative of the discovery of oxygen, which is in part at the University of Sweden, which is homebase for the fake Viking Nordenskjöld family. Yeah thats right, get the wheels turning, Hoffman of the fake Cali Geo Survey, wrote a promo piece for the same fake N Pole explorer that brought the fake Cliff Dwellers Promo piece in another chapter. What about that? And guess what the date of the Pop Sci promo… March of 1893! They were circle-jerkin each other the whole time. You know what is really going on here? It is a single entity, thats what. Only compartmentalization breaks it down so you can’t see it but put your glasses on and it’s rite there.

  • Mt Hoffman is tallest peak of Yosemite National Park and marks the center of its boundries.
  • Hoffman would later become mine engineer at San Fran and Mexico, where J. Gardner also went, for such banksters as Rothschilds and Guggenhiem. Same people from Diamond Hoax sensation.
  • His obit tells us a Goodyear was there. GY are notable eugenicist murder/death/killers
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The ‘copyright’ page inside the Popular Science volume is Appleton. Appleton created scandel when his encyclopedia were found to have so many fictional characters even the Normies had to admit it. This only made the accepted fakes harder to out. Everything he printed was fake, not just the encyclopedia. All of them. This is why you always go to orginal source, if I accepted the Ministry’s version I wouldnt’ve seen this.

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They were all recruited by J.D. Whitney. Whitney family Military Industrial Complex Eli Whitney and the Cotton Gin, Agricultural Revolution tech along with Combine Reaper (See my Controlling the Food Supply papers)

Cali Geo Survey was the inspiration for the USGS.

Charles King Bird

I almost missed maybe one of the the most important connections here. Charles King was also the name of one of the very first Indian portrait painters. See, before the camera was developed all visual propaganda had to be done on canvas. These were all commissioned by the War Dept as well.

The name Bird connects us to Admiral Byrd, of the fake South Pole exploration, so Charles King would have been a shoe in. This explains why his appointment as such a young age civilian and over the heads of more deserving military personnel. He had birth-right status- both as an explorer and as a phony boloney Western narrative content creator.

Bird kept a studio in D.C. where he was paid to paint politicians and he did many fake founding father head-shots. Thomas McKenny was first Commissioner of Indian Trade, he suggested that Bird paint all the visiting Indian chiefs that came to DC, which we know is bullhshit, there were no visitibg Indians and King was following written descriptions given by some crazy French Aristocrat.

Along with Indians in full regalia, King also did the lithographs of John Ridge, the O.G. Cherokee leader and David Vann, the slave-owning treasurer of the fake tribe. Vann housed the Moravian Missionary on his property and was accused of murdering several Indians there, including one burned at the stake.

Modern critics admit his work is based more on stereotyped imagery then factual representation but stop short in coming out with the truth that he made it all up. King has been praised for being the first white artist to “paint an Indian wearing a flowing-feather bonnet of eagle feathers” and “Plains Indian women.”

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These are the types of images the Orphans were first introduced to the concepts of the Indigenous populations. Some would develop further at the human zoo’s which served as a way to insert the scripted cultures of all the First Nations people of the world.

The most intriguing piece of his that I have found is not even Indian related but coonects us to my fake Ancient Rome paper. Titled, The Vanity of the Artist Dream, ca. 1830, this is supposed to be a silent nod to the starving artists in the world with the bread and water. Thats total bullshit, the early artist made the visuals needed to pass off the fake history insertion. Thats not it though. Do you recognize the marble bust thats shoved in? Thats the Colossus of Rome, the iconic fraud featured at the World Fair as a tribute to Napoleon, Ancient Egypt, and Ancient Rome. All fake. This is the statue mentioned by the first scriptwriters that go around ascribing false histories to the remenants of the world before the Reset. Bird gave it a shout-out bc he knew its a fake. Nobody wouls understand what he means by including this in his picture unless you’re in the ‘in’ crowd. Well I know what it is, bitch, tell me how you feel about that.

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The backstory of the statue can be found here in my Ancient Rome is a Fake Ass Bitch paper. It was displayed at the Crystal Palace Expo in 1852 but here it is in painted form in 1830. Birds age indicates he was born before the official start of the repopulation @ 1800-1801 (Aces and Eights), Which means maybe he was present when Heinrich Keller was bouncing around Europe with all his art-fag friends picking through the Old World ruins to create today’s ancient religions.

(Video) America's Most Impressive Ancient Ruins

1873 Wheeler Survey

Back to the Pueblos…

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  • On June 30, 1879 the survey’s field work was officially ended, along with
    Hayden and Powell, subsumed under the newly formed U.S. Geological Survey.
  • Wheeler War Dept delagate the the Third International Geographic Congress and Exhibition in Venice. Sullivan was his representative. On the trail he had pull of Wheeler (forage agent) and was well known even in the remote areas.
  • Here is the diary of Wyant, painter for the Expedition. This will serve as our body of false evidence that was inserted later into the mainstream to support the narrative. The diary was squired by the University of Flagstaff in 1975 from a New York City bookshop owner, no details are known but that is just chatter. The diary is fake bc it supports other other instances which we have already determined are lies. I would like to point out the seemingly offhand comments about the dwindling buffalo populations, you know why we never hear about large herds in real life? bc there was none. At least not like they say they the herds shook the Earth when it traveled like some American Serengeti. Maybe this is what the scriptwriters think they should expect in a virgin wilderness but not here there weren’t. This is like the whale populations that didn’t exist but stories are used for guilt shaming so that makes it OK.
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The title to the pic above 1. is “Mojave Indians Caught Napping”, this is like the Crimea War pics that show soldiers sleeping on the ground with no blankets or pillows or bedding. Just spread out on bare earth like these poor saps. That building in the cluster has the word ‘Observatory’ written across the front. Like as if the people there would forget what it is without the sign. Its just a backdrop for a production

The Tale of Two Bells

Just when you thought things couldn’t get any better, a Bell pops up in the narrative

William Bell was photographer for the Wheelers for a year while Sullivan ran off with Clarence King. Looking at the timeline OSullivan is out on expedition in some rough parts of the world for a long time. He doesnt take a break after returning form years long survey mission before hopping ship to the Panama jungle for a few years before coming back hoe to go survey some other remote spot for a few more years. Im not saying he is fake but he might be, certainly his teacher was. I think its more likely the dates are incorrect. Who knows how long those pics were sitting on a shelf before they were released. The images of the French Revolution were supposed taken in 1871, the same timeline period as this, yet they weren’t released to the public until the 100 yr anniversary when someone said they discovered them while preparing for the Centennial celebration. Both the French Rev pics and the survey pics are part of the same project.

Any Bell is worth noting bc they are another one of the premiere spook families, up there with Morse, Hoffman and … Sullivan. Bell and Sullivan families would serve together in another instance I covered, the eugenicist war on the deafblind, Anne Sullivan was Helen Kellers companion and Alexander Graham Bell took them to almost every World Fair for half a century to catch the Eugenics congress and he was developing the telephone and Keller herself was an exhibit to be gawked at.

Just when you thought things couldnt get any better than a Bell, 2 Bells show up in the narrative.

The thing is there are 2 diff Bells that work as photographers at the same time and for the same people, both of them even come from England. This is history trying to break up one person into two. He is being compartmentalized. That’s how they hide things, confusion.

One Bell worked as a medical photographer for the military, which means he took a lot of surgery and operations; gunshot wounds, amputations…

The other Bell was a fellow of the Royal Geographic Society and published some pictures of a soldier that was killed by Indians in an issue of Harpers Weekly

The only dif is his-story remembers them is one has the middle name Abraham (Jewish), lets start with this one. Lets call him Jew Bell since thats what the Ministry of Truth is trying so hard not to say.

Bell came over to America in 1867 to study homeopathy in St Louis. He was also trained physician so the plant based medicine might just be misdirection and a way to name-drop the medical industrial complex. Im sure he didnt come all the way from England just to study the benefits ofswamp weeds for fux sake, they tell us that anyway. Instead he joins a Pacific Railroad survey expedition. Along with this survey was none other than Alex Gardener. Bell didnt just join an expedition he was in partnership with Palmer and some of the other politicos from New England. Together they founded the Denver/Rio Grande Railroad and founded multiple towns throughout Colorado, including Manitoba Springs and Durango. He also had major companies like Colorado Coal & Iron, I mean it just wasnt a dunkin donuts, the Trust founded the major infrastructual companies along with the high-end architectual landmarks.

For some reason he was chosen as expedition photographer even though he had never used a camera before. Bell lasted 6 months before abandoning the team and equipment, travelling down to Mexico then up to San Fran to the East Coast where he booked it back to England. He published a book with his pictures and sold to both England and America.

In 1872 he returns to America with his business partners and start a group called the Durango Trust. Bell and Palmer went on to start 30 businesses in the area along with several towns and the railroad. You can see where this is going right? O’ Sullivan started a trust also with a french name to hide it the Societe Anonyme de Golden River, not very eloquent huh? This was a mining venture. Seems like all these guys have a side hustle, Big hustles.

One town of Manibou Springs is modeled off of Sarasota Springs in NY, which was known for its mineral springs healing properties (maybe this is the homeopathy angle… It is his-story’s way to discredit mineral spring healing properties by calling them pseudo-science homeopathy. Pretty sneaky too, that was a good catch) At this time during the age mineral baths were very popular and promoted for their medicinal qualities. This is way before the Flexner Report would ‘modernize’ the health industry with petroleum based pharms but the focus is still on sickness management. In other parts of the Country was Eureka Springs, AR, Hot Springs, AZ, and Sarasota Springs, NY. There are many more but I have covered these ones before so can tell you they fit a pattern.

Durango is the name of the town of Mesa Verde. No Shit. Bell as proprietor of the Railroad built the town right outside the park gates and developed the whole town. He had insider knowledge. Thats why he was said to flee after 6 months. He wasn’t fleeing, he was making moves. This was 1867. The Navajo would ‘return’ to the land in 68, meaning that’s when the work was wrapping up. He had a major contributing hand for developing the whole area as a tourist trap. I cant believe I just found that.

Bell was a grad of Cambridge for fux sake

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Durango Trust also founded Colorado Springs and built the place up before the railroad was finished to bring the tourists in, he had restaurants and hotels and saloons ready to go. No way bro, thats the cheap-ass story they give the normies to explain how the city just popped into existence fully assembled. Anything is better than telling them it was the Reset. Such as this hotel, with a fake label of 1887 slapped on.

  • Durango is also located on the Old Spanish Trail which is now in my growing body of evidence that a nation wide network of footpaths existed as a trading route, Silk Road. These paths are dismissed as Indian Trails. So is the Appalachian Trail
  • a bell is a hypnosis trance-inducing tool, also variation of Ba’el Lucifer

Willie Bell #2

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Glyphs etched into the rocks captured on the Wheeler Survey in 1872. Zoom in and look up close. I think someone found the Peyote buttons. Ill have to finish Bell 2 bio later.

Cliff Dwellings of Canyon de Chelly

White House Ruins

*First sightings included Mexican-Spanish missionaries Francisco Atanasio Dominguez and Silvestre Velez de Escalante in 1776. The ‘Dom’ prefix is referring to the Dominican Order of missionaries, they have been in the game for a long time as the fakers of sites with cultural significance. Mainly the Catacombs of Italy and the rest of Europe. It is appropriate that they insert themselves here too, some of the first photograhed Pueblo structures are the missionaries and churchs, said to be hundreds of years old.

In 1849, Lieutenant James H. Simpson of the Corps of Topographical Engineers, recorded several of the archeological sites in the canyon, including one he called Casa Blanca (White House) because of a white-plastered room in its upper portion. He also noted similarities between the construction methods used in this region and those used in the ruined pueblos of Chaco Canyon only 75 miles to the east, which he had previously visited. Yeah, if by visited they mean constructed. *Simpson is credited for putting the first road in which became the Pony Express route in 1860.

The Corps of Topographical Engineers traces its lineage from George Washington, the fake founding father (How did I not see that coming?) Anything connected to them means they arent real either. The Corp is a way to dismiss questions about the history of the infrastructure. Stuff like straightening the Mississippi River and surveying Florida. This is first modern mention of the cliff houses so considering the source was invented to invert timeline and make the new stuff old and the old stuff new Id say this is appropriate

Simpson was a member of Col. John M. Washington’s expedition against the Navajos with specific instructions to find out all he could about the Old Spanish Trail from Santa Fe across the Upper Colorado to Los Angeles. In 1849 Simpson added his name to the historic and prehistoric inscriptions at Inscription Rock (El Morro National Monument) in western New Mexico. I’m working on a thread that says there was an old system of footpaths that served as a Silk Road of sorts. Later these were shrugged off as Indian paths.

[you know what else i think about is that old saying “The Chinese built the Railroad.” No they didnt, the rail road has always been here. that saying means the Chinese have always been here too. Europeans where the last ones show up, and then get blamed for everything.]

In 1873, while mapping large portions of the West, the U.S. Corps of Engineers Wheeler Survey conducted research including photographs of the White House Ruins

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  • Well look at this, all three people holding the same pose. Maybe you will think it is a natural way to stand and should be expected. Maybe but I dont think so, the exposure time was about 7 mins. they held this pose for that long, there s no blurring and it appears to be an authentic picture. That by ltself is meaning bc every image we look at has been altered some how but this is the only one? Its the narrative thats a lie, the pic is real, they want everyone to see this.
  • The childish looking stick man is always on the show Ancient Aliens. The spellcasters know, they’re the same families just like the Indians, thats why they use it like product-placement advertising, to show off how ancient and mysterious the ancestors were. Thats why it was created and it is still used for the same reasons on Ancient Aliens. All the fake truth guru outlets on youtube that bring up the Mudflood and Reset, you know they’re fake bc they push the same mindfuck narrative that the cliff-house builders were real. The Reset is all there is, and its not hard to figure out. Once you stop questioning whether the Reset really happened and start questioning how they pulled it off everything is support evidence. Chaco Canyon and all the rest of these fake ass bitches are nothing different than every other tourist trap out there, and connected by the same people. Read the fine print, take the link.

The brochure says it gets its name bc the original Navajo name for the place was the White House and since its in ruins its just the White House Ruin but I dont think so, its word play. I hope I dont have to explain every little detail here it would take to long. The White House Ruin Trail is the only part of the complex open to the public. The rest of the park is home to families of the Navajo that live here full time. These are the families of the first agents. The leaders of the newly introduced Indian community would’ve been inserted, just like they always are. These same families have been the gatekeepers all along. It is through them that access to most of the park is permitted. Navajo National Monument is noted for being the only National Park with this arrangement.

Today’s tourism industry admits the modern Navajo have no connection with the cliff houses even though they are in the center of town. Thats bc the cliff houses were built first by the Corps of Engineers and then the new tribe was brought in and told this was their ancestral home. This protects the site when you have a vested collective interest. One other example of this strategy is Harpers Ferry. Said to be of great importance to the abolitionist movement, the narrative is protected by a Black University that is headquartered in town. (I guess the scorched earth policy decided to let this one go)

See how this one played out? A military survey team rolls through and declares the area off-limits for a few years. Then all of a sudden it was ‘returned’ to the people and they were forced to stay there. In reality those years it was off-limits is when the structures were being built.

At the same time this is the only building site open to the public there are more elaborate structures accessible only by a paid Navajo guide. This serves as a livelihood for the people of the tribe who’s only existence now is to protect the site and the narrative.

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There is even confusion about the name. The Navajo know they didn’t build the structures and claim it was the Anasazi, but that’s their pet name for the people, it’s not the real name, whatever that is. Some places say it was Wetherill that named them. The word translates into ‘Ancient ones’, which is a form of mockery. Meanwhile the Hopi try to claim the sight as theirs, I’d like to see how that claim originated. The reason why nobody knows the name is bc it didn’t have one, unless the Corp of Engineers is a recognized tribe these days.

Park Service Handlers

Another thing I want to comment about is National Park Rangers and tour givers, these are top-notch manipulators. They probs have to take some psychology courses as part of their training bc it is some MK-Ultra type deception they pull. The whole game is a mindfuck, these agents are performing a type of hypnosis and suggestion, listen to this one…

“As you look down into the canyon, you can see a few white aspens amidst the Douglas-fir and box elder. You notice too, how halfway down the canyon everything just seems to stop growing. It looks like a battle line between the green and the desert. We can only guess that the whole area looked just like the green part at one time. It must have offered a fertile soil and other lush, naturally growing vegetation to the farming and agricultural people of the Anasazi. The advancing desert was probably one of the reasons that the people left here over 700 years ago.”

“When you see that look in the visitor’s eyes, that he is visualizing life 700 years ago, then I know I’ve been successful. This is my most rewarding experience, knowing that when these people head back to the civilized world, a part of Betatakin and Keet Seel will be with them, a feeling that they actually knew the people here.”

What a crock of shit. For decades the question has been “What made these people flee their home?”, easy to answer if you figure there never was any. Even still, the modern gatekeepers figured it out. climate change

Ramah, Inscription Rock, El Morro

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Established in 1876, Ramah was one of fifty locations in the New Mexico Territory settled by Mormon pioneers and is one of only three that remain today. Ramah was originally settled for the purpose of missionary work to be carried out within the Zuni and Navajo communities.

Part of a bigger network labelled El Morro National Monument. First mentioned with the Topographical Corps and photographed by OSullivan and Gardner.

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Site Includes Inscription Rock, which is pretty much a monument to fake history and icons. Starting with the the appointment from Abe Lincoln to Eddie Beale to survey the first wagon road from Arkansas to Hollywood. Known as the Wagon Road, it would be the foundation for the Transcontinential Railroad and Rt 66. So you know thats a lie bc the railroad was always here

Inscription Rock is supposedly a graffiti cover time capsule but all i see in a bunch of Military Industrial Complex Families scratch some fake dates and the childlike representation of a goat and bull (both are Lucifer) Its too a piece of evidence. to convenient for the gatekeepers to have everything all rolled up in a neat little pile. Its a stage prop.

Going all the way back as far as you want, the RR is the owner of the property, not Gov. Homesteaders like Wetherill purchased the land from Santa Fe RR. The Zuni sites werre excavated by Wetherell after his big debut at the Chicago Expo.

Brief History on History

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In 1882 Sen. George F. Hoar of Massachusetts presented a petition to the Senate from the New England Historic Genealogical Society. The antiquarians sought a general designation for prehistoric ruins in the Southwest that made them distinct from the rest of the public domain. (Boston was one of the earliest seats of authority in America. They have more than their share of fake Indigenous sites and moves to cover and protect one site ripples outward to protect all sites).

Undeterred in 1889 Hoar introduced another petition signed by so many elite Bostonian’s Congress didn’t hesitate to push it through. Ben Harrison finalized the Casa Grande Ruins Reservation in 1892 as the first of its kind, setting up gov funds for the maintenance and preservation of pre-historic sites. Spanish monks recorded Casa Grande in the 1600’s.

The South had its share of sites wanting for preservation. Their end was started with the creation of the AVPA, the Association for the Preservation of Virginia Antiquities in 1888. I bring them up bc these were the ones that started the preservation movement with the fake historic Jamestown Settlement. This chapter of Conservation history also included the Corps of Engineers that manipulated the landscape decades before the site was ‘rediscovered’ and also included academic oversight from the nearest authority, in their case it was William and Mary College, in the cliff dwellings it looks like the Universities of each of the four corners locally and peabody at Harvard collectively. The Smithsonian is omnipresent (Another reason why Boston is so hyped up on preserving the Southwest.)

This move didn’t seem to do much for the whole, the legislation provided a one-and-done deal for Casa Blanca only. These sneaky pants are 2 moves ahead, you see, the setting aside of Casa Grande was a milestone in the creation of Anthropology. Compartmentalization by way of niche specialists is the ultimate goal. By the end of the 1890’s, the American Association for the Advancement of Science had already been making moves to splinter science into as many branches as possible.

Training in the isolated disciplines was also developed during the same period. Franz Boas, a Jewish emigre from Germany, taught anthropology at Clark University in Worcester, Massachusetts, which in 1892, granted the first Ph.D. in anthropology in the United States. When he moved to Columbia University in 1899, Boas developed the first comprehensive anthropology program in the United States. Meanwhile American archaeologist began to develop training programs, with Harvard University and its Peabody Museum appearing in the forefront.

At the same time, possibly the first Agenda 21 style land grab was put in binding-contract fuckery under the General Revision Act of 1891. Since 1862’s Homestead Act all you had to do was pay a filing fee and as long as you provided upkeep you were allowed 160 acres. The new law brought by the America Forest Association gave the Prez discretionary power to remove forested land from the public domain in areas calledforest reserves. It was snuck in the back door as a rider to the bill, prompting whitewashing historians to suggest that Congress was not clearly aware of the significance of the clause. I think it suggests the exact opposite. This underhanded legalese tactic suggests they knew exactly what they were doing, thats why they tried to hide it so nobody else would know.

Once the binding-contract was in place the Prez alotted so much land to the Forestry Reserves the Western States started getting pissed off bc of the land use restrictions so further illegitimate binding-contracts were needed to cover for it. The take-away is this is the earliest moves for the Feds to control its resources, the fake historic sites showcased in this essay are considered National Resources. Starting to put things together yet? All these groups that appear to be acting in isolated self-interest are really moving as one coordinated machine.

I think its wise to point out The National Park Service is only a few years away and features a tree on their sigil. The tree represents not only a way to manipulate the landscape to whatever the situation calls for but it also a key to restricting the land altogether. The creation of the Civilian Conservation Corps was right over the horizon as well, their nickname is the “Tree Army”, they were responsible for planting millions and millions of trees, sounds good till you realize all those trees mean it is now a forest and thereby subject to the land grab.

All of the previous 20 years of hee-hawing between Academics and Politicians were coming to a head in the year 1892, as if on queue, the Columbian International Expo was waiting in Chicago, 1893. The Chicago World Fair housed the most comprehensive display of American Indian artifacts ever assembled. Under the direction of such rising talents as Franz Boas and William Henry Holmes, who trained during the 1870s on the F. V. Hayden surveys, the exhibition surpassed even the Columbian Historical Exposition of 1892 in Madrid, noted as the most important collection of artifacts assembled to that point. The exhibition ignited a general interest in the southwestern relics, furthering the development of public interest in Indian cultures.

The World Fairs is where all the Hidden Hand rulers and operations would get together to pay tribute to themselves. This is where the false narrative was inserted into the mainstream. Groups of people were presented at Human Zoo’s where all the First Nations cultures were scripted and sold to the general population. The elaborate cliff houses are just the kind of flair that was popular at the fairs where not just the structures but the abilities to pull off the fake was seen as an art form. The art of imposing a false history on a slave class without them even knowing it.

That is exactly what the cliff houses represent.

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Chaco Canyon

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Pueblo Bonito, Room 33

Room 33 is one of the most well-excavated areas of Pueblo Bonito. A concentration of elite burials occurred in room 33, which are differentiated from other burials in Chaco Canyon since most people were buried outside the great houses. The oldest burial was of a man who died violently, and archaeologists believe that room 33 was built as a crypt for him and his descendants.He was buried with thousands of turquoise and shell beads and pendants, which originally formed necklaces, anklets and bracelets, making his the richest burial ever excavated in theSouthwest. Over the next 330 years, from 800 to 1170, thirteen (some sources say 14) other individuals (both men and women) were buried in the same crypt with many elite grave goods suggesting important ritual functions in the community.All these numbers aren’t meant to be serious, they are signals which identify the site as being controlled.

(Video) The Ancient Ones: Anasazi Civil War Episode of The American Southwest Podcast by Thomas Wayne Riley

DNAanalysis found that nine of these individuals sharedmitochondrial DNA, meaning they were all related through the female line. Archaeologists have concluded that Pueblo Bonito was associated with an elitematriline, a powerful family who inherited their status from their mothers, for approximately 330 years. The room 33excavationsare the first archaeological evidence of matrilineal descent among theAncestral Puebloans, which is a further link to their modernPueblodescendants, many of whom practice matrilineal succession. Since the Indian customs were inserted by Whites I say this detail was added to support fake cultural identity. It also doesn’t make much sense if the first person in the Royal crypt was male and the place was built for him and his kin but then later say that the social organization was based on the maternal line. This is probably where two narratives met. First the original excavation and later the scripted-in DNA maternalism envy

Room 33 was most notable for its discovery of flutes, 1 or 2 complete specimens and 4 fragmented flutes

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Mixed in with the bones and flutes pieces were tens of thousands of turquoise and shell beads. Everything was jumbled together because the room would flood during the rainy season. To me it is unrealistic anybody would make this a permanent structure knowing it was flooded regularly. In fact it may be evidence that the place is a modern fraud that was placed it in the flood plains to intentionally disturb the site, erasing all evidence of the forgery.

Mixed in with the bones and flutes pieces were tens of thousands of turquoise and shell beads. Everything was jumbled together because the room would flood during the rainy season. To me it is unrealistic anybody would make this a permanent structure knowing it was flooded regularly. In fact it may be evidence that the place is a modern fraud that was placed it in the flood plains to intentionally disturb the site, erasing all evidence of the forgery.

It is also noteworthy that the findings each align with the current academic views of the time of discovery. The baskets were found when the theme was industrious, which then advanced to elaborate pottery. The flute and beads showed up when discussions turned to artistic markers. Anytime they find what they are looking for should make your ears lay flat.

  • See Also: 6 toed footprints

Mesa Verde

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The Cliff Palace at Mesa Verde, Colorado, was discovered by rancher Richard Wetherill (1858- 1910) and his brother-in-law Charlie Mason, who were riding across the mesa top looking for stray cattle.

This is the same guy that has been excavating all the cliff dwellings in the area. This one he is said to have found coincidentally and random, just walking along minding his own business and there it was. Wetherill owned much of the surrounding area, he tried to get personal authority of the site complex but the Fed stepped in and kicked him off Federal property.

Wetherill was hired by the State of Colorado to work the Indian display in Chicago and show off the artifacts he collected with his brothers at the sites. Called ‘the eldest son of a wandering family’ is a polite way of saying he was Jew. Other places try hiding it openly another way by saying he was born into a Quaker family from back East. Quaker is a code word for Jew, Cryptojew if you want to be PC but its not a theory, fact check me. My favorite one is the one that said he was “Inspired by their heritage, which honored the Inner Light of all people.” Good stuff.

Wetherill had family connections back East from before they moved the family biz out to Southwest CO. At the same time and in close proximity is Red Rock Canyon where the Peabody Museum was also involved with the collection of fake dinosaur fossils. Many of these fossils were also presented at the Chicago Fair along side the cliff house artifacts. It is impossible for me to believe the two are not connected. Institutions like Harvard and Worcester almost exclusively use the same families for their moves. It makes more sense to me if the Corps of Engineers were building the sites while the area was closed off to the outside bc of “Indian Wars”, after completion the Wetherills were given the green-light and moved out to the property and established a legitimate front as cattle baron. History says their cattle biz failed miserablly. Maybe it did, I dont think so bc thats what they always say when they turn profit, if they project fails thats when they say how great they did, whatever they say they’re lying. It doesnt even matter if it failed or not bc that was not the mission. The mission for moving out there was the dwellings.

The patriarch of the Wetherill clan, Benjamin Kite (B. K.), arrived in the Mancos Valley in 1880, he may have been involved wth the construction still going on at the time but I think by this time they are done building and he is out waiting for everything else to be in place, the legislation he knows is coming, for one. He would also be protecting the investment, the cliffs, not the cattle.

In 1890 the Denver Historical Society offered to purchase the mummy of a child discovered at Mesa Verde, and Richard Wetherill accepted its offer of $3,000. The Wetherills then began excavating “in a more businesslike manner,” and in 1892 they assembled an extensive collection of artifacts with the visiting Gustav Nordenskiold of Sweden.

Gustaf Nordenskiold1 connects us back to the Polar explorers again, being from a family of fake explorers. Nordie was descended from Swedish explorers, as close to Vikings you can be, if there really was such a thing. According to his bio Gustaf had led an Arctic expedition around Spitzbergen, (North Pole) at the age of 21. I guess it helps that his dad carried the title Baron and is credited for discovering the Northeast Passage in his ship, Vega. Not only that but in 1891 Dad is fixing to become the director of mineralogy at the Swedish Museum of Natural History. This indicates Gus’ father was museum curator and sent Jr specifically to Wetherill for part of his collection right after it was acquired by the Denver Museum just beforehand.

Just like with everything, Normie history claims these happening are all random and unconnected coincidences, that Wetherill just happened to find the cliff houses and mummy, and then the Denver museum just happened to make an offer. Next the Swede just so happened to be passing through town and was fortunate enough to glimpse the collection where he fell in love, which prompted him to knock unannounced on the door of Wetherill to ask for an explanation. GTFOH. Thats not how real life works. The scriptwriters said Denver made the offer “for fear that if they did not act immediately the collection would be transferred out of State.” Thats how I caught them, they tried so hard to make it seem organic. If history just said, “The Denver museum offered a sum to Ricky to go out and find it a collection.” maybe it could’ve slipped past, but no, they fucking liars with everything they have and they throw themselves under the bus every time bc of it.

Mesa Verde is a World Heritage site, this was how they inserted it into mainstream World culture. Nord was selected bc of the Polar Explorer connection, remember Greely, the Captain of the media sensationalized North Pole rescue? He’s not the only one with a similar background. Western expansion was also a variety of exploration. They all know its all fake, just like the Polar exploration was all faked. It’s all sleight-of-hand illusion and parlor tricks. They’re not just faking American history, this is World history

This is also a preview for the coming International Expo going down the following year. I doubt they paid anything at all for the pieces, real or not. What better advertising can you get then to pass out a few clay pots for displays scattered in museums around the World and get the population hopped up for more right before the show. The same thing happened before the Philly Centennial in ‘1876, the Hayden Expedition return in 1875 just in time for the dioramas to be set up to the ooh’s and ahh’s of the crowd.

[It’s important for the new people here to understand the significance of the World Fair. This is where the new fake timeline was inserted. World leaders and spooks of every kind could gather in the same location without drawing suspicion to themselves like the Bohemian Grove or Bildaburger. Progress of inventions necessary to the new global* control grid such as the sewing machine, combine harvester, telephone/telegraph, cotton gin and camera could be directed and social warfare projects could collaborate and debrief. Its the ONLY reason. Dont try and pick and chose different displays like one is good and one is not, they are all like that, thats how the whole thing works. I dont agree with using absolutes, caps lock and all that, but so far I have not been wrong one time.]

Rewind back to 1889, the story goes that by this time news of the sites had reached private and institutional treasure-hunters and the place was starting to get vandalized. The condition of the cultural relics was the wetherills only concern and while they did everything in their power to keep the destruction out they just couldn’t do enough. So the old man did what any virtue-signaling philanthropist would do, he wrote the Smithsonian and invited them to come out and take control of the situation.

“…. I think it desirable that the things found should be collected in one place as near as possible, and not be scattered all over the country in small lots…. I think the Mancos, and tributary canons should be reserved as a national park, in order to preserve the curious cliff houses….

Thats some bullshit. The letter might have the guys name on it but he didn’t write that. “One place near as possible” is talking about the transfer to Denver, and to request the property be reserved as a national park is just straight up big-gov propaganda, in fact I’m sure I saw that in a John Wayne movie. (*McClintock, lol) Remember how pissed everyone was when the Prez was granted authority to declare property off-limits by declaring land a forest reserve? That was in 1891, right around the same time this letter was written, as if they were waiting for a queue or something.

The Secretary of the Smithsonian, Sam Langley, replied that while he agreed and would love too but:

“…Such matters are rather within the scope of the Bureau of Ethnology, of which Major J. W. Powell, is Director.…”

Ah. So it circles back around to Powell. Powell was first director of the newly established Board of Ethnology in 1879 and second director of the USGS. His home was the formal meeting place of the Cosmos Club, which connects again back to Greely who was a charter member. Powell was a super-spook, him and the Smithsonian had always been in charge, now they just had to pretend like they just walked in.

Langley is sec of the Smithsonian, man thats good. Langley is home to the CIA in Normieville, VA. Just ask ’em.

But wait, I’m not done yet, Powell hands the letter of to Willie Holmes, the same guy that was down there in ’75 that made the dioramas for the Philly Expo! He’s working as an archaeologist for the Board of Ethnology now. Holmes politely refuses saying he agrees but its just not practical but maybe in the future.

Holmes comments later in a letter elsewhere:

“…There seems to be no need of other communication with him…”

Duh, thats bc they never really needed him anyway. Except maybe bc Ricky wasnt accountable to any govt or scientific agency. The military were the first ones in, followed by the Anthropology guys, none of them had the freedom that a citizen would have. This whole family is just a front and all his job was to do is offer up the role of overseer of the property. They probly werent even really pretend-excavating since the site wasnt even real why go through all the extra trouble? Modern day whitewashers point out how great the techniques were for digging theres none left today plus the virtuosity is limitless to ensure all the pieces ended up in museums instead of private collections. Well they had to go to museums bc thats the whole point, if they were in private hands where nobody could see them how could they pull off the fake?

Another point regarding the bones is how lucky we are to have found the crypt in Room 33, they’re the only human remains to have been found at the site, they say the Indians cremated their dead as a way to dismiss this. Thats boloney, theres no skeletons bc there never was any skeletons. You would only need a handful of items to pull the whole thing off. The detailed excavation notes can all be filled in by professional scriptwriters. Hell, with the number of fake mummies and catacombs going on on the World stage they probly got the template already laid out, all you need is to fill in local details. All the relics went straight to the Smithsonian, if there even were any, whose gonna know?

On the way out of town back to Sweden they staged Nordie’s arrest. Indian Agent Bartholomew accused him of vandalism and seized all his artifacts. Shortly thereafter charges were dropped and items returned. No he wasn’t really arrested, this is just a continuation of the PR campaign to drum up enthusiasm for the Fair.

Finally when he does make it back to Sweden the Wetherills are impressed with the speed at which Gustaf writes and publishes his book. No way, that shit was already written and printed before he even left. Happens all the time.

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Wetherill homesteaded the many of the sites, that means they were literally in his backyard. He would continue to operate a trading post within its boundries up until his death. In 1910 it is said he was killed by an Indian horse-thief.

He had purchased all the property from the Santa Fe Railroad, this is the first mention we have seen from anything from the RR. Significant bc they are the real power behind everything; the Scientific institutions, academic, and political. Nothing could’ve taken place without their green light. The Railroad isn’t owned by anyone, it enjoys a status that treats it as an autonomous entity with full rights protected by the Constitution. The Constitution is a falsified historic doc. A binding-contract legalese black magick spell that gets its power from the same energy source that gives currency its value. The Constitution doesnt give the RR sshit, the rr allows the Con. if anything. My point is the property was owned by the rail the entire time of the Indian Wars, the military exploration and the archaeological expeditions, not the state or the bank. Doesn’t nothing happen without their say so. And yet nobody owns the RR. its creepy. Later the Feds came in and kicked Wetherall out but let him maintain his trading post. That means he probly never had it to begin with. the State works for the RR so there was no exchange.

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Mummy Cave

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(46/47 is a significant mark, it is the year the fbi was born, the number was sig. before that though, thats why they chose to announce it on that date.)

Antelope House

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Navajo National Monument: Keet Seel, Betatakin, Inscription House

Located in the Navajo Reservation, the three sites are among the best-preserved and most elaborate cliff dwellings known. The three sites, made a national monument in 1909.

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Keet Seel

The old Ancestral Puebloan ruins of Keet Seel were discovered byRichard Wetherillin early 1895 and made a national monument in 1909.

Source: Fred M. Blackburn November 12, 2005

The Keet Seel cliff house had one room containing the valuables of several Navajo families. Visits there three different years found them there each time. One burial mound that was previously worked proved to be very rich in pottery and burials, more than 100 skeletons being removed and more than 400 pieces of pottery being saved and brought away entire.

The first work at Kiet Siel was done by a party led by Richard Wetherill, and financed by Theodore Bower [Bowles] in 1897. They left Mancos, Colorado, in October, 1896, and reached Kiet Siel in March 1897.

The notes, plans, photographs, and artifacts were turned over to the American Museum of Natural History, New York. W.B. Douglas surveyed and made a plan in August, 1909.

Dr. J. Walter Fewkes, of the Smithsonian Institution, visited the Kiet Siel ruins in September, 1909, and made out a report that came out later. There was a report of 1909 gotten out by Dean Cummings for the University of Utah. (Fewkes=Faux=Fox=Fawkes)

In 1909 W.B. Douglas, of the Land Office in Washington, D.C., looked over the ruins and decided they should be made into a National Monument.

Most of the pottery is of the finest quality in designs of black and white which indicates a developed art in that direction that has not been rivaled. Some of the large ollas, particularly, measuring two feet across are perfect both in shape and design.

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At the conclusion of the expedition Richard hoped to sell the collection, rumored at 2000 artifacts for $5500. He would split the collection proceeds with Whitmore and Bowles. Richard eventually settled for a sale to the Hyde brothers of $3000 in January of 1898.

Several fine stone axes are lying about evidently discarded ones but of excellent workmanship and on examining the various timbers about the walls and roofs one can easily see that they were all cut with stone axes from the gnawed off appearance of the ends.

One huge timber lying directly across the front of the outer walls, possibly used at one time for a prop or support with a length of 40 feet and 14 inches in diameter, was cut and trimmed with stone axes which must have required considerable patience, skill, strength and time to cut, showing an admirable side of their character.

Inscription House (regurgitated Inscription Rock script)

The latter ruin derives its name from an inscription scratched into the clay plaster of a wall. It reads, “Shapeiro Ano Dom 1661.” Well if that aint a family promo for all ages. Check and see in the Army Corps of Engineers had a Shapeiro in the early 1900’s. 1661 is an easy one.

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In the 30’s erosion was noticed, by ’44 in was declared too dangerous for regular Normies. In ’49 a flood swept out mummies and hi-quality clay pottery (found by a brewer). In the 50’s efforts were made to restrict access and since 62 the site has been closed to the public. Or maybe they just restrict access to limit the amount of people that come in to contact with it bc its so fake.

That erosion is happening so rapidly might have been intention. Erosion control is the reason the Corps of Engineers always give bc that covers the movement of large amounts of earth. Greely, the head guy from the North Pole, was known for his work in creating the flood plains in remote areas of Indian Territory. I found this odd at the time but I know what the Corps of Engineers mean when they say ‘erosion control’, it would not be implausible to design this to wash away in a few deacades. This is better than just restricting access bc you have erased all the evidence it is a forgery. In fact it is common that fake historic sites are paved over and built upon, much to the wailing conservationist that knows it is a cover-up.


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About 15 miles northeast of the Pass is Kayenta, founded by Wetherill and Colville as a trading post late in 1909 and the home of several white families, chiefly associated with the local Navajo Indian hospital and its related activities.

It was inhabited by a semisedentary people. Following the so-called Basket Makers, first known agriculturists of the Southwest, came three other equally. distinct stages of tribal and material development to culminate in those great, communal towns of the Pueblo period—Betatakin, Keet Seel, and Inscription House. They are distinct phrases as part of the piece. This is 3 site locations on a massive scale but it is one single art exhibit. A feature of the exhibit is to display progression. From basket weaving to clay pots. GTFOH. Thats the defining attribute for somebody capable of building such an elaborate structure? Baskets. and stone tools. sharp rocks and baskets. Nope, they aint tricking me.

It was first seen by whites on August 5, 1909, when a Utah University exploring party led by Prof. Byron Cummings and guided by John Wetherill was directed to it by a Navajo Indian, casually met in Segi Canyon.- Im sure that is NOT how it was discovered but OK, this gives us a springboard to find out how the fix was set. All universities act as a single entity, Utah is a stand-out bc it is so much older than story book history says. Its singled out with the Mormon thing, we arent getting into that right now but its a lead. Im not familiar with any of the names either but they can be traced. There is even some Sullivan pics of Salt Lake City from the Wheeler Expedition that show a row of shanty’s in the dirt. SLC has massive Old World castles, the Mormons serve as a replace for Indians in that they were never there but his-story has to explain where these buildings came from so they came up with the Mormons. At the same time one of their own guys says he’s the chief Mormon and indeed he built those castles. Then their own media outlets jump in and confirm, yep it was him alright. They even got a fake old newspaper to prove it. Im paraphrasing that part but trust me.

This Indian pointed the way and then sat down beside the trail to await the party’s return. Through inherent fear of all things associated with the dead, he steadfastly refused to advance within sight of the ruin. This is a reocurring theme in most places of ancient ruins I never considered before now, all the way down into the Amazon jungle ruins and Eastern European Crimea, the local populations dont claim the buildings and generally have negative superstitious feelings toward them, wont go inside or around them, prefrring instead to sleep in camps away from the permanant solid structure.

Geological and Archeological Surveys

Powell Expedition 1882

John Wesley Powell is such the Hidden Hand Plug his story says he was hit by a pumpkinball during the Civil War and had his arm removed. The problem is the battle which he says it happened never happened. In the pics like the one with the Ute woman just show him hiding that side of his body. I still haven’t found an image of Ol’ Stumpy that convinces me his arm is lost.

Pics housed in Peabody Museum, the fake history and science center at Harvard. Photographer for JW Powell was John Karl Hiller.

Hillers was originally hired as a boatman for the second Powell expedition down theColorado Riverin 1871, Hillers began to replaceWalter Clement Powell, John W. Powell’s cousin and assistant to the expedition’s photographers, first toE.O. Beamanand then toJames Fennemore.

(Video) Discover Archaeology: Updates from the Northern Chaco Outliers Project

Hillers was Powell’s chief expedition photographer on the trip down theGrand Canyonthe next year.

He went on to spend twenty years exploring and photographing the American West, and is known particularly for his portraits of Native Americans. The Indian portrait artists have traditionally been from the War Dept. Bird was one, that connects us to Admiral Byrd, the Polar explorer. I think that 4 but who counts amongst friends?

He was the first staff photographer of Powell’sBureau of Ethnology(from 1879) and after returning to Powell’sUS Geological Surveyin 1881 continuedBureau of American Ethnologywork until he resigned in 1900. Although he officially retired in 1900, he continued to take photographs for theUnited States Geological Surveyuntil 1919.

Hillers was the photographer of the firstJames Stevensonexpedition to the Southwest,which broughtFrank Hamilton CushingtoZuni. Mary Hemenway, an affluent Bostonian, financed the work of Cushing.

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Jemez Ruins

Many traditional pueblo sites, some claiming dates back to the 1500’s. [Link]

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Westward Expansion and World Heritage Frauds, Chaco Canyon and Mesa Verde. (93)

Hayden Expedition

Ruins Near Ft Wingate

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In 1874 William Henry andWilliam Henry Jackson, the photographer on the survey headed by renowned scientist Ferdinand V. Hayden, took photographs of ruins in the Mesa Verde area of southwestern Colorado. Jackson made models of the ruins he had seen for the exhibit of the Department of the Interior at the Philadelphia Centennial in 1876. Thats our first World Fair connection. The dioramas were most likely made first and actual construction based off the models.

Hyde Expedition

The World Fair was the Grand Finale’ in my paper but out there it is only the beginning.

Among the expeditions Wetherill organized was one financed by two brothers, Talbot and Frederic Hyde. Heirs to the Babbitt soap fortune, the Hydes met Wetherill at the Columbian Exposition in Chicago and became interested in Indian artifacts. They went to Mancos, and in the winter of 1893 the three formed a partnership. Their first expedition to Grand Gulch, Utah, uncovered many artifacts, and the Hydes donated their collection to the American Museum of Natural History in New York.

They came up with the discovery of the Basketmakers by Richard Wetherill in Grand Gulch, Utah during the 1893 Hyde Exploring expedition.

The canyon was the focus of one of the first major excavation projects in the New World, the Hyde Exploring Expedition. Initiated by the American Museum of Natural History in 1896 and led by George Pepper and Richard Wetherill, the Hyde Expedition excavated Pueblo Bonito, the largest canyon great house and one of the oldest. National Geographic and the Smithsonian Institution sponsored additional excavations at Pueblo Bonito from 1921 to 1927 under the direction of Neil Judd.

The partisan nature of anthropological politicking helped account for the general disavowal of his discovery of the Basketmakers, the ancestors of the people who built the cliff dwellings. Although George H. Pepper of the American Museum of Natural History and Dr. T. Mitchell Prudden, a medical doctor with strong ties to institutional anthropology, reported Wetherill’s find in scholarly and commercial articles, others dismissed it as a hoax. The self-affirmed anthropological and archaeological clique again felt threatened; without any formal training, Wetherill was altering their intellectual terrain. If his discovery gained credence, it could have dire consequences for establishing professionals

In part as a response to their perception of this blatant challenge, institutional anthropologists in the late 1890s began to organize an appeal for legislation designed to prevent people like Richard Wetherill from digging up the ruins of prehistoric civilizations. Anthropologists needed exclusive access to sites to acquire professional respectability, if they were to avoid the challenge represented by Wetherill’s work. They sought legal remedies to protect their territory from intrusion.

Civilian Conservation Corps

NP-2481910/15/1940GallupChaco Canyon79 mi NW

What many Americans don’t know is that the CCC had an “Indian Division” that employed 85,000 Native Americans, usually on their own reservations. In 1937, a unique Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) sponsored “Indian Mobil Unit” was established in Chaco Canyon. The camp was located east of Pueblo Bonito and the goal was to train Navajo men and a woman in stone masonry, ruins stabilization, drainage control, archaeological excavation, and associated administrative tasks. In 1939, under the direction of National Park Service (NPS) archaeologist Gordon Vivian, men from the Indian Mobile Unit excavated a small village site in advance of the construction of CCC camp NP-2-N, designed to house a regular 200 man unit. Camp NP-2-N was closed in 1941 and the Indian Mobile Unit was closed in 1942. The success of the Mobile Unit program resulted in the establishment of permanent Ruins Stabilization Units at parks in the Southwest. The 1939 excavation of the archaeological site, the CCC Site, exposed nine rooms and associated sheet trash. In 1949, two deeply buried kivas were excavated by the NPS. In the mid 1970s, the Chaco Project re-excavated portions of the two kivas and Room B in order to obtain archaeomagnetic dates.

In 1934, the Carnegie Institution “loaned” archaeologist Earl Morris to the National Park Service to supervise the repair of ruins in Mesa Verde National Park, Colorado, and Aztec Ruins National Monument, New Mexico. The NPS had received funding in 1933 for long-term development projects through New Deal emergency work relief programs, one of which was the Public Works Administration. The PWA provided money for physical improvements in parks and monuments, including funding for restoration and stabilization of prehistoric ruins. Morris was recommended for the job as an acknowledged expert, with previous reconstruction experience at sites such as Chichen Itza and Canyon de Chelly’s Mummy Cave. With the help of unemployed locals, Native Americans, and experienced fieldhands, Morris reconstructed the Great Kiva he had excavated a decade earlier at Aztec and stabilized the Mesa Verde ruins, most notably Cliff Palace. Morris’ work served as a model for future projects, and a permanent MVNP stabilization team headed by PWA foreman Al Lancaster grew out of this work.

Morris was the supposedly real-life guy that inspired the Indian Jones character. he branches out into the ancient sites of South America and the rest of the World. Another day perhaps.

Its All Fake

The unique Indian Mobil Unit huh, They didnt excavate the site they built it. This was common in Rome during catacomb excavation, sites just so happened to be right where the archeologist wanted to put their institutions. The Special task force would go around from site to sight and assistance in ‘preservation’ techniques. These are the decendants of the people that helped build it for the military back in the day.

It would make sense if the natives did build it under direction of all the above mentioned parties. That would be the style of World Fair hoaxsters. Let the slave class do the actual work, but besides that it has to do with the deception. They say it was built by the Indians and it was. The cover of the Indian war would work really good to keep tresspassers out. Nobody would be suspicious if they noticed a few Indians running around. The survey expeditions could be going in every few years to get progress reports. Later these same people would be left in charge of the sites, the whole Rez surrounding them in Navajo Nation, this would be the pay off, if you want to call it that. Maybe that was the queue that they were moving on to phase 2, after construct was done they just moved the other Indians to the work site and was like, ‘here you go, youre people built this.’

Whataya know, It was the Indians afterall.

I hope you enjoyed, please leave a comment and lemme know what you did or did not like, challenges are always appreciated


To Edit. from Park Service literature:

In early 1900, at the behest of the American Association for the Advancement of Science and the Archaeological Institute of America, Rep. Jonathan Dolliver of Iowa introduced H.R. 8066, a measure designed to afford protection to American antiquities scattered around the Southwest. Dolliver’s proposal followed earlier patterns of American land legislation and reflected the values of the scientific community. It granted the president almost unlimited power to create reservations “in the same manner and form as now provided by law and regulation for forestry reservations.” The reservations could include almost anything of public interest, including historic and prehistoric places and natural or scenic areas. Most important, the bill did not restrict the size of the reservations. A much broader bill than Senator Hoar’s petition in 1882, H.R. 8066 granted powers that many in the West feared

American Association for the Advancement of Science

The next day, Rep. John F. Shafroth of Colorado introduced a bill to counter Dolliver’s proposal of strong central power. H.R. 8195 focused on punishing vandals who disturbed ruins on public property, not on reserving lands on which there were known ruins. The House Public Lands Committee quickly put it aside. Yet Shafroth’s proposal clearly made his point: executive interference in questions concerning the public domain had to be checked. The bill was a gesture, its rapid introduction an indicator of the seriousness of the issue to western representatives. Pursuing a worthwhile end, advocates of preservation had again imposed on the rights of individual western settlers

His point clear to the preservationists, Shafroth tried to negotiate a compromise. On 7 March 1900, a few weeks after his initial bill, he offered a less extreme measure, H.R. 9245, which allowed the USGS to survey areas containing prehistoric ruins. It granted the secretary of the interior the power to proclaim reservations limited to a maximum of 320 acres. Shafroth’s perspective typified the western view: Preserving antiquities was a good concept, but safeguarding regional interests required concrete limitations on the power granted by legislation. The restriction to 320 acres effectively prevented a chief executive from hampering the ability of western farming and ranching interests to prosper. Cropped as it was, H.R. 8195 allowed the president no powers he might use capriciously.

All three bills went to the House Committee on Public Lands, where they became entangled in Washington politics. Committee chairman John F. Lacey of Iowa, the author of many pieces of conservation oriented legislation, passed them on to Secretary of the Interior Ethan A. Hitchcock, who gave them to Binger Hermann, the commissioner of the General Land Office (GLO). Hermann was a strong advocate of preservation legislation. He inspected the bills, found them lacking, and responded by proposing his own draft, which the House Public Lands Committee coolly received. [23]

The question of preservation became deeply entangled in the issue of the administration of public lands, and the first signs of official interest in preserving southwestern ruins clearly revealed conflicting perspectives on the issue. Western congressmen wanted to solve the questions of their region without interference from national policy-makers. Federal bureaucrats seemed far too willing to sacrifice potentially valuable western land for their peculiar sense of the overall good of the nation. Dolliver and other supporters of preservation and conservation regarded recalcitrance on this type of issue as evidence of individual greed and ignorance of the problems of the future. With no consensus among the proponents, all the bills, including Hermann’s proposal, H. R. 10451, died in Congress. Unpopular with Western congressmen, the protection of aboriginal ruins appeared to be a classic special-interest issue.

Nearly three thousand miles away, westerners developed new interest in the archaeological ruins that intruded upon their economic lives. On 30 April and 1 May 1900, the Santa FeNew Mexicanreported that the Hyde Exploring Expedition, under the direction of Richard Wetherill, was excavating ruins in Chaco Canyon, located in the north western corner of the New Mexico territory. In an inflammatory tone, theNew Mexicaninsinuated that the expedition was merely a raid on the ruins by professional pothunters.

TheNew Mexicandid not initiate the public reaction to the excavation at Chaco Canyon. Earlier in the spring of 1900, Edgar L. Hewett, the president of New Mexico Normal University in Las Vegas, New Mexico, and at that time an amateur archaeologist who staked an informal claim to the thousands of pueblo ruins on the Pajarito Plateau north west of Santa Fe, complained to the surveyor general of the General Land Office about the work at Chaco Canyon. The GLO took note of the complaint but did little. When Hewett convinced the newspaper to publish its report on the excavation, Washington dispatched Special Agent Max Pracht from Santa Fe to the Chaco basin. Unhappy at being sent to a remote corner of the New Mexico territory, Pracht went unwillingly and seems to have made only a cursory attempt to understand the situation. Nevertheless, in May 1900 he sent his report to the commissioner of the GLO. [24]

Pracht indicated that he thought the excavation was a responsible, professional operation. Prof. Frederic W. Putnam of the American Museum of Natural History, an important name in American archaeology, was the nominal head, and at the time of Pracht’s visit, George H. Pepper, one of Putnam’s former students and the author of an article about the Basketmakers, supervised the excavating. Richard Wetherill led a band of Navajo laborers who did much of the actual digging. Pracht believed that the artifacts the men found were being “used in a legitimate way as a scientific collection. The result of the work of these scientific men . . . cannot but rebound[sic]to the immediate benefit of ethnological and historical bodies the world over.” [25]

Pracht had few options, and he suggested that his superiors handle the question. He knew of no law that specifically prevented excavation of public land, and indeed none existed. Pracht thought that the secretary of the interior should contact Putnam and ask the professor to withdraw his crew or request a presidential order that forbade the work. The status quo was clearly intolerable. Either the ruins had to be left alone, or a system had to be developed that protected the ruins from depredation and destruction of all kinds. [26]

Pracht had no complaints about the Hyde Exploring Expedition as long as someone like Pepper, with scientific credentials, oversaw the work, and it appeared that the interests of science were served. He hoped to thwart those intending to make a fast profit in selling antiquities. The General Land Office in Washington, D.C., had little to go on other than the report. Its officials concurred with Pracht’s findings and informed Putnam that a complaint had been filed.

Not everyone accepted Pracht’s verdict on the Chaco Canyon excavations. Edgar L. Hewett particularly remained unconvinced, and on 17 November 1900 the Santa Fe Archaeological Society, upon which he was an important influence, requested that Secretary Hitchcock put an end to the “depredations” at Chaco Canyon. [27] Responding to the pressure, Commissioner Hermann secured an order requiring the excavation in the Chaco region to cease. He sent the order to Putnam and planned another inspection of the area, for which he selected Special Agent Stephen J. Holsinger.

The cessation order was a necessary gesture. Disturbing reports about activities in Chaco Canyon continued to filter back to Washington. On 18 January 1901 Special Agent S. S. Mathers of the GLO office in Santa Fe informed Commissioner Hermann that the delegate to the New Mexico legislature and the county clerk of San Juan County, where the ruins were located, visited him. They reported that although the Hyde brothers had stopped excavating, Richard Wetherill had continued. Their most damaging contention was that Wetherill and his men had found a very valuable piece of turquoise, which they had sold for $1,200. Mathers also reported the existence of the Hyde Exploring Expedition trading post with stock worth more than $80,000. Mathers contended that Wetherill and the Hydes had made the entire sum since beginning their work in the Chaco region. [28]

These were devastating accusations made by responsible representatives of San Juan County, and in Washington, D.C., it appeared that Pracht had been deceived. Apparently unaware that Holsinger had already been sent from Phoenix, Mathers offered to go to Chaco Canyon. “This thing ought to be stoped[sic],”he declared, “and what is taken from these ruins ought to be sent to the Smithsonian Institute.” [29] The entire situation had become a serious problem for Commissioner Hermann. Mathers’s report clouded an already murky picture. Hermann’s men could not agree whether responsible scientists or pothunters were excavating the ruins.

Holsinger was one of the most dependable people that the GLO employed in the West. He had extensive experience in settling land claim disputes, a reputation for being fair, and an air that made him formidable. Holsinger went to Chaco Canyon to settle the dispute by judging the facts. Along with many that followed him, he was dragged into a situation with no clear right and wrong and, in the end, made judgments based as much on conviction as on discernible fact.

Holsinger’s inspection at the Chaco Canyon produced the first truly close look at the activities of Richard Wetherill and the Hyde Exploring Expedition. Holsinger arrived at Chaco Canyon on the evening of 23 April 1901, and by the time he left nearly a month later, he knew as much of the excavations as did any of the participants. On 5 December 1901 Holsinger filed his report to the commissioner of the GLO. In it he examined the situation from many points of view. His investigation resulted in a document that juxtaposed the values of the nineteenth-century frontier and those of twentieth-century regulatory bureaucracy.

Wetherill’s motivation particularly intrigued Holsinger, and in his search for clues, he untangled the story of the Hyde Exploring Expedition. According to Holsinger, Wetherill realized that he had found an area with considerable significance for southwestern archaeology, and from which he could make possibly the most important collection of prehistoric artifacts yet discovered. “To make this stupendous collection entire,” Holsinger wrote, “became his one ambition.” [30] Wetherill’s project required capital he did not have, but his acquaintances from the Chicago Exposition, the Hyde brothers, could easily afford the investment. The Hyde Exploring Expedition was the result.

The Hydes and Wetherill went to great lengths to convince Holsinger that they had reputable intentions. The men and their Navajo laborers excavated in the summers following 1896, and they estimated that they found 50,000 pieces of turquoise, 10,000 vases or pieces of pottery, 5,000 stone implements, 1,000 wood and bone implements, a few baubles, fourteen skeletons, a few copper bells, and a jewelled frog in Pueblo Bonito, the largest individual ruin. The Hydes, to whom the terms of the partnership gave the collection, reported that they donated everything to the American Museum of Natural History, “not a single specimen having been retained, not even a souvenir by any member of the company or their families.” In a sworn affidavit, Talbot Hyde told Holsinger that along with the collection, the brothers gave the museum “many other valuable artifacts purchased from Wetherill, who secured them in Colorado and Utah.” [31]

From the perspective of the GLO, the evidence posed numerous problems. Foremost was the question of ownership of artifacts found on the public domain. Because mineral, timber, and other rights on such land belonged to the government, it seemed a simple extension of law that artifacts and anything else remained federal property. If that was the case, then the expedition was guilty of violations of federal law. In short, from the stance of the government, their investment in the Hyde Exploring Expedition gave the Hyde brothers no right to collect artifacts or to donate them to anyone. The issue of the sale of what was ostensibly federal property also appeared. If the Hydes purchased other artifacts from the public domain from Wetherill, the government might be able to prosecute. Holsinger’s report revealed that Wetherill’s cottage industry and his ability to produce artifacts from all over the Southwest posed an even greater threat to the ability of the GLO to administer its domain than GLO officials had previously realized.

Fact and impression had become closely intertwined, and the situation made Commissioner Hermann’s job difficult. The Hyde Expedition trading post at Chaco Canyon contributed to the well-being of destitute Navajo Indians in the area, but the economics of the trade in modern Native American goods was a side issue. The primary concern of the GLO was the disposition of what appeared to be one of the most important relics of the prehistory of the North American continent. If Chaco Canyon resembled Holsinger’s description, it deserved some kind of protection from careless depredation, and Hermann believed that accredited anthropologists should be responsible for excavating the ruins. But short of a special act of Congress, similar to the one drawn up to protect Casa Grande, no means to accomplish this existed.

The need for rules and regulations to govern activities in places like the Chaco Canyon clearly emerged from the otherwise confused situation. Government officials increasingly believed that they had to do something to protect ruins from random excavation, but without a law that specifically defined artifacts on public land as federal property, they had no place from which to begin. Holsinger could not prove that the string of Hyde trading posts were marketing relics from the ruins, but neither was there evidence to allay his suspicions. At the conclusion of Holsinger’s investigation, it seemed that the Hyde Exploring Expedition would continue its activities. Another existing law, however, offered the GLO a way to stop Wetherill.

The government used the Homestead Act of 1862 as its means to regulate Wetherill’s activities. The homestead claims filed by Wetherill and Frederic Hyde were an obvious target for concerned federal officials. Both filed claims on quarter sections that contained ruins, locations they were not homesteading in the traditional sense. Instead of farming, Holsinger wrote, Wetherill “occupied and used [the land] for the purposes of trade,” a practice that did not allow an individual to receive a perfected patent. Even so, Wetherill and the Hydes “took frequent occasion. . . . to avow goo[d] faith and disclaim any intent to defraud the Government or in removing relics from public.” [32] But Wetherill’s claims of good intention did not sway GLO officials in Washington, D.C. In March 1902 the General Land Office suspended his homestead claim because he had not planted sufficient acreage in crops to satisfy the requirements of the Homestead Act. Simultaneously, the temporary cessation order against the Hyde Exploring Expedition became permanent. [33]

Preempting homestead claims in the Chaco Canyon on superficial grounds hailed the beginning of a new era in the disposition of the public domain. Spurred by Progressive reforms in other areas of resource preservation, the GLO came to see preservation as a significant goal. The Department of the Interior began to express a position toward government land in the Southwest that was closely allied with President Theodore Roosevelt, who ascended to the White House after the assassination of William McKinley in 1901, and his belief in centralized power.

Despite its isolation, Chaco Canyon was obviously a national treasure, and an active Department of the Interior took a strong stance to protect it. The issue was no longer whether the participants in the Hyde Exploring Expedition were vandals or responsible archaeologists. Holsinger did not complain about their methods; instead he questioned whether individuals had the right to appropriate a shared resource for their own gain. Although of a different character than forests or minerals, the ruins were certainly prone to damage.

Chaco Canyon was not an isolated example, nor was the government singling out Wetherill for castigation. After 1902 the GLO stepped up its efforts all over the public domain. Before then, the bureau routinely granted requests to excavate to respectable citizens, usually anyone who could find a congressman to ask on their behalf. But by 1902 the outcry was sufficient to stem this practice, and GLO officials felt a much stronger commitment to protecting archaeological areas. After 1902 they refused requests to excavate from people without scientific credentials. Even ostensibly responsible citizens were asked to refrain from unsupervised digging, and no matter to what lengths their congressmen went, permission to excavate was rarely granted. [34] A value system different from any that Richard Wetherill understood began to govern the decisions of the GLO.

The suspension of his homestead claim was a message to the individualist from Mancos. His era of self-taught people was being brought to a close by trained, accredited institutional professionals. People like Wetherill could no longer consider the public domain of twentieth-century America their private territory. Like it or not, a strong central government was starting to manage resources, regulating and legislating land use in the United States. This meant that prehistoric ruins were no longer going to be the de facto property of the first person to stumble over them.

According to Holsinger, Wetherill chose not to cease his activities in the Chaco Canyon. On 15 May 1902 the agent again wrote the commissioner of the GLO about the actions of Wetherill and one of his brothers, who continued to excavate near Pueblo Bonito. Richard Wetherill denied the allegations, claiming that his brother acted alone, but Holsinger believed that both men were selling the newly found artifacts. [35] Wetherill also told visitors to Chaco Canyon that the excavation belonged to the Hyde Exploring Expedition, a fact that particularly galled Holsinger. “The work is the purest vandalism,” he insisted. “The more I know of Richard Wetherill, the more I am convinced that he is a man without principle.” [36]

Holsinger’s objections to Wetherill increasingly became personal. He had given Wetherill grudging respect on his first trip to the Chaco Canyon. Holsinger had not impugned Wetherill’s or the Hydes’ statements, preferring instead to believe their sworn testimony. But even after the cessation order, Wetherill continued to excavate; worse than that in Holsinger’s eyes, he lied about his activities and incriminated the Hydes, who had chosen to obey the regulations. Wetherill forfeited the right to have his word honored, and Holsinger came to regard him in a different light. “He boasted to me that he was known as the ‘vandal of the Southwest,'” Holsinger wrote, “which at the time I did not accept seriously but have since learned was a matter of some pride with this man.” [37] Wetherill’s behavior offended Holsinger’s sense of decency and convinced the GLO agent that the man deserved to be treated like a criminal.

Wetherill was the consummate representative of the attitudes of nineteenth-century Americans, accustomed to doing as he chose with out being bothered by rules and regulations. Firm in his convictions to the point of self-righteousness and stubborn to a fault when compelled to obey the directives of others, Wetherill believed he had as much right to the artifacts that he found as did the government. He felt unjustly deprived of his way to earn a living. Washington, D.C., was a long way from the San Juan River basin, and Wetherill knew the Chaco area from first-hand experience. To give an order was one thing, to enforce it another, and Wetherill felt no remorse as he continued to dig. Perhaps realizing his days in the field were numbered, he set out to “take all that I can get in the next four years.” [38]

Holsinger was equally determined to put an end to Wetherill’s activities. He continued to keep a close eye on his suspect and stepped up his attacks on other southwestern pothunters. In November 1902 Holsinger arrested four Mexicans in Arizona whom he caught trafficking in illegal artifacts. He hoped that the arrests might deter Wetherill, but by December 1902 he was convinced that Wetherill would not stop excavating. “I have understood upon reliable information that he has openly boasted that he would pay no attention to the warning notices given by me in the name of the Interior Department G.L.O.,” Holsinger wrote to his superiors, “and that he defies anyone to prevent his despoiling said ruins.” [39]

By this point, Holsinger recognized Wetherill as a direct challenge to the ability of the government to enforce the law in the West, and his quest for justice took on broader connotations. Wetherill’s success led others to emulate his behavior, and Holsinger feared that people in the West would not respect the law. Further investigation into Wetherill’s affairs became a high priority. “Wetherill has the reputation of being a ‘bad man,'” Holsinger insisted. “My acquaintance with him convinced me that he at least wants to be a proverbially bad man. It is important . . . that he be made an object lesson for others who would follow his example if given the least encouragement.” [40] In Holsinger’s opinion, no less than the ability to properly administer the public domain was at stake. A symbol of the lawless frontier past, Wetherill challenged the federal government to a confrontation. If he could catch Richard Wetherill in the act, Holsinger would make an example of this individualist pothunter as he had of the four Mexicans he had caught in Arizona.

The conflict between Wetherill and the General Land Office further emphasized the need for legislation defining what could be done with relics found on the public domain. Wetherill was an extreme case, but many westerners shared his sentiments about public land; laws that did not specifically apply to a situation were not enough to restrain those who had come to see the public domain as their own. But the Chaco Canyon episode became an important turning point. It placed GLO employees in the West firmly in the pro-legislation camp. Pracht, Holsinger, and their counterparts dealt with questions about the public domain on a daily basis. To Holsinger, Wetherill was exactly the kind of person who had to be tamed before the West could become an orderly, law-abiding place. To its employees in the outposts of the nation, the federal government was a powerful entity and the one best suited to bring the West into the twentieth century. From the perspective of the Department of the Interior, people like Richard Wetherill were symbols of a past that needed to be forgotten.

More than a scofflaw, Richard Wetherill was a man out of his time. He grew to adulthood in a world where the individual reigned supreme and people made their own rules. The West he knew was an open place, where people had the option to do as they pleased without interference from government. But that time had passed, and Wetherill could not adapt. The idea of a regulated society confounded him, and he could not adjust to federal agencies that exerted power over land thousands of miles from Washington, D.C. He continued to act as if no laws applied to his situation.

(Video) Hopi Origin Story | Native America | Sacred Stories | PBS

The clash of values between Wetherill and Holsinger was indicative of the future. The cessation order represented new and decisive action by the federal government, and its ramifications stretched to Congress and beyond. Wetherill’s name became synonymous with vandalism, and his presence galvanized supporters of legislation to preserve American prehistory. Twentieth-century congressmen, their elitist archaeological and anthropological associates, and concerned citizens all responded to what the name Wetherill represented, and some came to see stopping him as their singular goal. From the battle over Chaco Canyon, and many others like it, came the drive for legislation to protect American prehistory

Mound builders survey by Dept of Ethnology 1894 [Link]


What is Mesa Verde National Park famous for? ›

Currently Mesa Verde has over 4,700 archaeological sites including 600 cliff dwellings and the mesa top sites of pithouses, pueblos, masonry towers, and farming structures, with many more yet to be revealed. These sites are some of the most notable and best-preserved dwellings in the United States.

What is the meaning of Mesa Verde? ›

How did Mesa Verde get its name? Mesa Verde is Spanish for "green table" (green = verde; table = mesa). When Spanish explorers first came to the Southwest, they saw many tall landforms with flat tops and steep sides. The flat tops reminded the explorers of tables.

What makes Cliff Palace different from the other cliff dwellings at Mesa Verde National Park? ›

Cliff Palace is much larger than the other dwellings; while most of the cliff dwellings had two or three rooms, Cliff Palace had 150 rooms. Cliff Palace was also built deeper into the cliff rock, while the other dwellings were built in the shallow parts of the rock.

Who built the Mesa Verde? ›

The Mesa Verde archaeological region, located in the American Southwest, was the home of a pueblo people who, during the 13th century A.D., constructed entire villages in the sides of cliffs.

Why was the Mesa Verde abandoned? ›

People hunted out the big game and deforested the mesa. In 1276 a 23-year drought began. The Ancestral Puebloans abandoned the site by 1300. Cowboys found the cliff dwellings in the 1880s and subsequent explorers plundered them—until much of the mesa was turned into a national park in 1906.

Why is it called the mesa? ›

Mesa is a Spanish word that means table. Spanish explorers of the American southwest, where many mesas are found, used the word because the tops of mesas look like the tops of tables. Mesas are formed by erosion, when water washes smaller and softer types of rocks away from the top of a hill.

Who lived in Mesa Verde? ›

Ancestral Pueblo People of Mesa Verde

For more than 700 years they and their descendants lived and flourished here, eventually building elaborate stone communities in the sheltered alcoves of the canyon walls.

Where are the Mesa Verde and Chaco settlements located? ›

The people who built the cliff dwellings of Mesa Verde and the great houses of Chaco Canyon were subsistence farmers of corn, beans, and squash. The structures of this culture date to between ca. 350 BC and AD 1300 and are found throughout southwestern Colorado and other adjacent states of the Four Corners region.

In what ways did the Ancestral Pueblo design their dwellings at Mesa Verde to meet their needs? ›

Cliff palace

The buildings originally ranged from one to four stories, and some hit the natural stone ceiling. To build these structures, people used stone and mud mortar, along with wooden beams adapted to the natural clefts in the cliff face.

What is famous about the Anasazi city of Mesa Verde? ›

The cliff dwellings of Mesa Verde are some of the most notable and best preserved in North America. Sometime during the late 1190s, after primarily living on the mesa tops for 600 years, many Ancestral Pueblo people began moving into pueblos they built into natural cliff alcoves.

How was Mesa Verde formed? ›

The geological formations of Mesa Verde National Park were mainly deposited when the Western Interior Seaway washed over the mid-section of the North American continent. This sea advanced and retreated many times due to climatic changes during the Cretaceous Period.

What did the Mesa Verde eat? ›

At Mesa Verde, they farmed crops such as beans, corn, and squash and supplemented their diet by gathering wild plants and hunting deer, rabbits, squirrels, and other game. At first, they lived in pithouses, usually dug into the ground on the mesatops, but sometimes also located in alcoves in the cliffs.

What are some fun facts about Mesa Verde? ›

“Mesa Verde” is Spanish for “green table.” The name comes from the juniper trees and other foliage in the area. Mesa Verde became a United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) World Heritage Site in 1978. Scientists once thought the “Mummy Lake” at Mesa Verde was a reservoir.

What are some fun facts about Mesa Verde National Park? ›

“Mesa Verde” is Spanish for “green table.” The name comes from the juniper trees and other foliage in the area. Mesa Verde became a United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) World Heritage Site in 1978. Scientists once thought the “Mummy Lake” at Mesa Verde was a reservoir.

Can you walk through the cliff dwellings at Mesa Verde? ›

Many sites in Mesa Verde may be visited by individuals without a ranger/guide, free of charge. Ranger-led walking tours of Cliff Palace, Balcony House and Long House are available on varying schedules, admission ticket purchase required for a nominal fee.

Is Mesa Verde worth seeing? ›

Mesa Verde National Park, designated by the United Nations as a cultural World Heritage Site in 1978, is a place every traveler should experience at least once in their lifetime.

How old are the cliff dwellings in Mesa Verde? ›

The cliff dwellings of Mesa Verde are some of the most notable and best preserved in North America. Sometime during the late 1190s, after primarily living on the mesa tops for 600 years, many Ancestral Pueblo people began moving into pueblos they built into natural cliff alcoves.


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